TB is still proven to be a top killer around the world, and with more cases of drug resistant TB being reported daily, the cost of treating and preventing this disease will continue to be on the rise.
Although Africa and other developing nations lead in the number of those infected with tuberculosis, the infected population in the world is currently estimated to be at around one third of the
Tuberculosis is a disease of an infectious nature caused by a bacterium known as mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease spreads through the air. People with the disease can spread it to susceptible people through coughing, sneezing, talking or spitting. It mainly affects the lungs and other parts such as the lymph nodes and kidneys can also be affected. The symptoms for TB are fatigue, coughing, night sweats, weight loss and fever. One third of the population of the world is affected with mycobacterium tuberculosis. The rate of infection is estimated to be one person per second. About 14 million people in the world are infected with active tuberculosis. Drug resistant TB has been recorded to be a serious public health hazard in many countries. Resistant strains have developed making it difficult to treat the disease. TB has caused millions of death mainly in people living with HIV/AIDS ADDIN EN.CITE Ginsberg19981447(Ginsberg, 1998)1447144717Ginsberg, Ann M.The Tuberculosis Epidemic: Scientific Challenges and OpportunitiesPublic Health Reports (1974-)Public Health Reports (1974-)128-13611321998Association of Schools of Public Health00333549http://www.jstor.org/stable/4598234( HYPERLINK l "_ENREF_3" o "Ginsberg, 1998 #1447" Ginsberg, 1998). The World Health Organization came up with the DOTS (Directly Observed, Therapy, Short course) strategy. The approach involves diagnosing cases and treating patients with drugs for about 6-8
Tuberculosis has long been a disease that the human culture has been dealing with which entails significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. With dealing with such a horrific disease over the years, discoveries and evolution on the appropriate ways to contain, diagnose, and challengingly treat the disease has changed. One of the most concerning complications of this worldwide public health issue is the ability for it to quickly spread in high populated areas while becoming ever more resistant to forms of treatment not available in all locations around the world. This is a serious public
Once believed to be easily treated and prevented, Tuberculosis (TB) has recently been making a steady comeback. Previous to modern medicine, TB claimed millions of victims, spreading from person to person like wildfire. Around the 17th-18th centuries, the “White Plague” took the lives of 1 in 5 adults (20%) in Europe and North America (Iseman, 1994). However, as technological advances progressed, this seemingly ferocious viral disease became a primal, insignificant thing of the past. But, in the nature of all bacteria, TB has, in the recent years, mutated to become progressively drug resistant. Why is Tuberculosis coming back with a vengeance? Well, the answer’s quite simple. TB has done an amazing job of standing in the corner and
Tuberculosis, the white plague as used to be called once upon a time is still one of the deadliest bacterial killers affecting almost all parts, all corners of the globe. Though successful anti-tubercular antibiotic regimens and effective vaccine are available for decades and being used in the battle against Koch’s bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of this chronic multi organ granulomatous disease, our strand in the battle continuously seems to be in the losing side. Moreover the increasing prevalence of HIV-AIDS and diabetes mellitus is being proved to be providing predisposition to tuberculosis. As witnessed by the WHO, which has estimated that, in the year 2012, 8.6 million people have developed tuberculosis and 1.3 million have died of the disease including 320000 deaths of HIV-TB co-infected people (Global tuberculosis report 2013. World Health Organization; 2013). Long term antibiotic therapy and that too associated with several side effects and discomforts have diminished patient compliance with the anti-tubercular chemotherapy. This fact in turn has raised the new deadlier MDR-TB and XDR-TB strains. The whole scenario is a matter of panic and questioning the effectiveness of anti-tubercular antibiotics, immunologic efficacy of century old BCG vaccine and all other medical advents.
It is very important to know that TB can be treated and cured by taking the required medication that could last for around 6 to 9 months depending in the dosages. It is very important as recommended for all types of medication to make sure it is taking properly and is finished to avoid getting sick all over again. Selected studies were evaluated for their objective(s), design, geographical and institutional setting, and generalizability. Studies reporting health outcomes were categorized as primarily addressing efficacy or effectiveness of the intervention (Cobbelens, 2012). Tuberculosis can be cured and the social elements have always been an important issue on who will get the disease and who will be able to receive help to become cured. This disease will remain a worldwide issue for many individuals. Medication is continuing to treat as well as cure the advances of this disease and technology and medication has changed over the years, that it has become a way of shortening the amount of therapy that is needed. Perhaps in the future individuals will commit resources, plan and implement interventions that are needed to help reduce the deaths that are caused by TB. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). The Centers for Law The Public Health. Retrieved from HYPERLINK http//www.cdc.gov/tb/programs/TBLawPolicyHandbook.pdf http//www.cdc.gov/tb/programs/TBLawPolicyHandbook.pdf Cobbelens, F.
The Primary goal of the study was to examine the distribution of DM among TB patients and explore the risk of Drug resistant TB in Diabetics who are also infected with TB in Florida, USA. The Florida department of health TB control program aims to eliminate TB in the state through TB care initiative, A Florida system of Tuberculosis care formed by partnership between the Florida Department pf Health (FDOH) and the public health system statewide to ensure availability of effective TB management program, an aim in line with the global plan to stop TB 2016-2020 adopted by WHO has a post 2015 strategy to eliminate TB as a global epidemic by 2035.
Tuberculosis is a disease cause by a bacterium that spreads when a person infected with the virus, sneezes, coughs, or even talks and the germs make it into the air for another person to breathe. This bacterium primarily affects the lungs and prevents the proper functioning of the respiratory system. Tuberculosis continues to be a problem in the United States and the problem is even bigger in developing countries such as India where they have seen the growth of MDR-TB cases. The following annotated bibliographies include a variety of peer review journals, a CDC website and the RX for survival video, which addresses the burden of tuberculosis in different parts of the world. The bibliographies also look at the risk factors, prevalence, mortality,
Despite the accessibility of inexpensive and successful treatment, tuberculosis still accounts for millions of cases of active disease and deaths worldwide. The disease unreasonably has an effect on the neediest persons in both high-income and developing countries. However, recent improvements in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and enhanced implementation of present interventions have increased the outlooks for enhanced clinical care and global tuberculosis restriction.
MDR-TB is defined as a form of TB that is resistant to the two most potent TB antibiotics, isoniazid and rifampin. MDR-TB is mostly associated with secondary resistance 5. MDR-TB spreads in the same manner as sensitive TB from one person to another. MDR-TB arises due to the bacteria starting to synthesize drug degrading enzymes or drug efflux or due to spontaneous mutations. In order to treat MDR-TB, community-based therapeutic approaches with programs such as MDR-TB specific Directly Observed Therapy – Short Course (DOTS)-Plus holds promise 6. Another approach follows therapy with second line antibiotics, however those are more expensive and have notable side effects. MDR-TB is believed to have a mortality rate of 80%.
Progress tackling the TB burden is associated with Directly Observed Treatment – Short Course (DOTS) from the Stop TB Strategy, adopted by WHO in 1993. This strategy involves and addresses TB/HIV, multidrug-resistant TB and the needs of poor and vulnerable populations, strengthening primary care, engaging all care providers, empowering people with TB and communities with partnership, and enabling and promoting research. DOTS is a global TB control, reducing TB incidents by directly observing patients taking their drugs. Countries that have adopted the DOTS strategy have effectively treated a total of 51 million people since 1995 (The Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2014).
Many children are still ill with Tuberculosis (TB) and lose their lives even though TB is a preventable disease. Globally, one million children became TB positive and 140, 000 children died of TB in 2014. Ninety five percent of TB cases and deaths were in the developing countries (World Health Organization, 2016a).
However, the MDR -TB cases are still on rise (USAID Georgia Tuberculosis Prevention Project, 2013)
In 2011, WHO estimated 12 million prevalent cases of tuberculosis worldwide, of which about 630 000 (roughly 5%) were MDR tuberculosis. The highest caseloads of MDR tuberculosis were reported in India, China, Russia, and South Africa, which accounted for more than 60% of cases worldwide. India and China have the highest number of MDR tuberculosis cases worldwide. Tuberculosis has now been made a notifiable disease in India. Drug resistance surveys in several states have indicated that the prevalence of MDR TB in India is 2–3 percent among new cases and 12-17 percent among reinfection cases. According to drug