This paper will illustrate several aspects of how drugs affect our lives. Addiction philosophies including the psychology and physiology will be explained in an attempt to describe how drugs affect our bodies both physically and mentally. Secondly, different drug categories types will be covered including: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogens, and cannabis. Each of these categories has different addiction potentials and effect levels including withdrawal symptoms. Finally, the abuse of prescription drugs and their effects will be discussed.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide or LSD is a hallucinogenic drug that can be taken orally, injected or even absorbed through the skin. Once LSD has entered the body, it starts to take effects on the levels of serotonin in the brain which can cause; hallucinations, mood change, and even sensory distortion. After taking LSD, the effects on the brain usually last from 6 to 9 hours depending on multiple factors; the dosage of LSD taken, the subject taking LSD, and even the user 's mood can affect the duration of LSD use. LSD is a non-lethal, non-addictive, and a non-habit forming drug that has little to no effect on the long-term health of an individual. However, LSD has been illegal since the 1960 's. Not only did availability of LSD become scarce with the criminalization of the substance, but the legislation also put a halt on the research of the chemical as well. Much of the way LSD interacts with the brain has been left unknown. This derivative from the rye fungus Ergot has been the source of controversy that has left many people wondering why LSD has been classified as a drug that is just as dangerous to use as heroin. It becomes difficult for an individual to understand how legislation could criminalize a chemical without completely understanding how it functions and affects people. LSD should be legalized for scientific, medical and recreational usage.
Throughout the history of the human species, we have been always wanted to know three basic questions: why we are here, where did we come from, and where do we go after this life? Whether we were created from an omnipotent being as in many religions, we happened by chance and made it to where we are through evolution, or maybe even something else. Whatever the case may be, humans have always been curious and wondered about our existence and consciousness. Along with these age old questions, also came the use of psychoactive drugs and other mind altering substances. In order to try to understand these questions, humans have experimented with drugs that alter their state of consciousness.
Abstract: The human brain is the most complex organ in the body. Its functions control every aspect of life. It is important to attempt to comprehend the workings of the brain and to learn the effects of natural and unnatural substances on it. In order to look at chemical effects on the brain, one must first get an understanding for the chemicals as well as how the brain works to interpret and react to signals set out by these chemicals, rhythmically and physiologically. Several chemicals observed include: cocaine (and other chemicals), seratonin, and melatonin.
Awareness of your body as well as the environment is known as consciousness. Psychoactive drugs alters your consciousness by affecting your perceptions, sensation, attention,judgment, memory, self control, emotions, thinking, and behaviors. Three psychoactive drugs are depressants, stimulates, and hallucinogens. Depressants lower your body's basic activities functions and neural activities. Stimulates intensify neural activities and the central nervous system. Lastly hallucinogens are sensations that are not really there.
Throughout history a multitude of human populations have been using and abusing a number of psychoactive drugs. These drugs can include very common substances such as caffeine to the more deadly but arguably just as addictive heroine. Further on the list of psychoactive drugs include those of the psychedelic variety. These would include the chemicals such as d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), peyote and psilocybin among others. All of which have hallucinogenic properties that tend to blur the line between fantasy and reality. How dangerous are these chemicals, and what are the consequences of sustained long term use? Due to the controversial nature of the use of psychedelic drugs in a medical setting, the study of short and long term effects
Ecstasy also known as MDMA and is an edible, candy-like, stimulant drug, that gives the user relaxed, energetic, happy, and sensual feelings. Its effects can last for over 24 hours allowing the user to party for long periods of time. Ecstasy can cause hallucinations, panic and anxiety attacks, nausea, vomiting, inability to sleep, overheating, seizures, irregular heartbeats and strokes. The drug can cause emotional disturbances such as depression.
Drugs some use them to escape pain, others use them for pleasure, and some use them to just fit in. Either way drugs are a harmful substance that may seriously affect the body. Drugs mess with the brain in ways that we couldn’t even imagine. From destroying brain cells that help with critical thinking to destroying cells that give us the ability to feel pleasure. Drugs take the place of our natural body functions of the body. They fool receptors of the body and make it to where our bodies produce less of what we need. Over a period of time this may produce very severe consequences on the body. With all the risks involved with drugs it’s a wonder why some people use them.
Examining the effective usage of hallucinogens in psychiatric research, its effectiveness in therapy and the risks associated with uncontrolled usage of hallucinogens.
There are many types of major drugs in use today and on the top of the list is prescription drugs. According to Drug and Society vicodin is the most misused prescribed narcotic in the United States (Glen R. Hanson, March 5, 2014). They say in 2011 was one of the prescription and most often used by teenagers (Glen R. Hanson, March 5, 2014). Vicodin associated with hydrocodone and acetaminophen it is in a class of drugs called narcotic analgesics a schedule II drug. It is used to relieve pain. It is important to study drugs in our society because of scientific developments, we now know more about how prescription drugs effect on the brain. Furthermore we know that drug addiction can be effectively treated to aid people stop misusing drugs and lead happy lives.
MDMA has high stimulating effects which enable users to dance for extended periods of time, which may also lead to dehydration, hypertension, and heart or kidney failure. Ecstasy is both a hallucinogenic and stimulant drug. It is usually taken in pill form and supposed to be composed of the pure chemical (Kelly 2000). Recent research findings link MDMA to long-term damage to those parts of the brain critical to thought and memory (Gouzoulis 2008).
Rivas-Vazquez, a psychological researcher noted, “MDMA was used as a recreational drug whose appeal was based on its capacity to produce mild euphoria, well-being, and an enhanced sense of insight and connectedness with others” (Rivas-Vazquez, 2002). The psychedelic effect that ecstasy constructs is endured for about 4-6 hours which then develops short term and with frequent use long-term physical and mental damages and sometimes fatalities. “Research conducted by the NIDA indicates that the use of club drugs can result in significant complications, including death” (Rivas-Vazquez, 2002). This paper discusses how Ecstasy interacts with the neurotransmitters, how it affects the long-term and short-term memory, the brains reaction to abstinence and the long-term and short-term effects, the addictive properties in the drug, as well as affects it has made on a users ability to function and their
Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, ecstasy, heroin and cannabis, are of natural or synthetic origin, which can alter the emotional state, perception, body functioning and behaviour of an individual. Drugs are known to work in the brain by activating certain brain circuits via different mechanisms, and stimulate or inhibit different neurons in the pathway. However, due to the effects of each drug being different, a drug will affect either different pathways and neurons in the brain to that of another, or through a different process, i.e. direct or indirect activity. This essay will discuss the different mechanisms of action that cocaine, ecstasy, heroin and
An individual’s behavior and emotion becomes chemically altered often resulting in dependency, aggression, onset of diseases and poor judgement. This poses a dangerous threat to the neurotransmitters since they have multiple jobs in different parts of the brain. Drugs of abuse are able to exert influence over the brain reward pathway either by directly influencing the action of dopamine within the system, or by altering the activity of other neurotransmitters that exert a modulatory influence over this pathway. These drugs are often powerful and have been known to trigger schizophrenic behavior and can also cause a person to cease breathing, for example hallucinogens such as LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin are able to artificially stimulate the serotonin receptor (Sapolsky, 2005).
It is no secret that drug use has the ability to completely alter a person’s state of consciousness, whether it be through extreme euphoria, increased hyperactivity, pain relief or psychedelic hallucinations. Although many drugs are used for medical purposes, the global issue of recreational drug use is now being fronted as an extremely serious matter that is steadily on the uprise. Recreational drug use is often associated with negativity, addiction and as having serious physical and mental repercussions. One of the few class of drugs that is often associated with both positive and negative connotations are hallucinogens, otherwise known as “psychedelics”, which have powerful altering effects on ones sense of perception, brain function