Dyslexi A Specific Neurological Learning Disability

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The Texas Education Code defines Dyslexia to mean a disorder of constitutional origin manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity. “Related disorders” include disorders similar to or related to dyslexia such as developmental auditory imperceptions, dysphasia, specific developmental dyslexia, developmental dysphasia, and developmental spelling disability (Texas Education Agency, 2014). However, the International Dyslexia Association adds that:
Dyslexia is a specific neurological learning disability that is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding
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Furthermore, students with dyslexia have trouble with understanding and hearing how sounds make up words in the spoken language, phonological memory and automaticity. Consequently, problems with these rudimentary processes result in subsequent issues with reading comprehension and written expression (Keller ISD, 2008). The TEA Dyslexia Handbook outlines the characteristics of dyslexia by grade level:
Preschool students experience delays in learning to speak, difficulty with rhyming, pronouncing words and adding new vocabulary words, poor auditory memory, inability to recall the right word, trouble remembering letters and numbers, and a dislike for print or reading. Kindergarten and First grade students face difficulty with syllables, identifying and manipulating sounds in words, decoding, spelling words the way they sound and/or remembering letter sequences in sight words. In addition to many of the problems that preschool- first grade students endure, second and third grade students experience also experience difficulty recalling letter patterns in reading, connecting speech sounds with appropriate letter or letter combinations, decoding unfamiliar words and written expression, and they heavily rely on picture clues, or guess at words while reading. Fourth through sixth grade students exhibit the same behaviors
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