EFFECTS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ON ACADEMIC PERFOMANCE IN SECONDANRY SCHOOLS IN NYAMIRA NORTH-DISTRICT NYAMIRA COUNTY.

2003 Words May 23rd, 2014 9 Pages
EFFECTS OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING ON ACADEMIC PERFOMANCE IN SECONDANRY SCHOOLS IN NYAMIRA NORTH-DISTRICT NYAMIRA COUNTY.

MARUBE DENIS MAINA
2013/CS/27518

Chapter two
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter will focus on the review of the existing literature to the specific idea of effects of guidance and counseling on academic performance in secondary school level. The information gathered from the literature will be used to define a benchmark against which the SGC services may be measured.

2.2 Review of Related Studies
Few topics have been identified as per the problem, effects of guidance and counseling on academic performance in secondary schools.

2.2.1 Importance of Guidance and
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Hattie et al (1999) argues that pra-professional are more effective than trained therapist and Berman and Norton (2000), using vigorous criteria for accepting studies as methodology adequately conducted that there is no overall difference in effectiveness between professional and nonprofessional therapist.
Pattern (1973) affirms that the non professional helpers have included adult volunteers, parents of children and college student’s models of treatment have received more training to achieve better results. Non professional do better with long term counseling while professional are comparatively more effective short team work.
Durlak (2005) adds that non professional such as volunteers achieve good results because of the following factors:
a) Able to offer difficult cases to professionals.
b) Restrict themselves to straight forward.
c) Limited cases load.
d) High motivated to help.
e) Perceived by clients to be more genuine.

Corey (2004) indicates that they are advantages in no professional status and relative lack of experience and advanced training. Some of the disadvantages associated with expertise include the danger of burn out due to overwork.
Towbin (2006) postulates that possible explanation for the effectiveness of non professional counselor that they are selected from a pool of naturally talented untrained listeners in the community.

2.2.4 Qualities of a Good Counselor
A capable counselor must possess a number of personal
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