These drugs have the ability to reduce CNS activity causing the drug to promote fatigue which allows for a more productive sleep. Benzodiazepines that are intended to treat insomnia are classified as hypnotics. Some benzodiazepines are considered sedatives because they are prescribed to relax and calm patients which allows successful treatment for anxiety. Benzodiazepines are considered to substantially less dangerous than barbiturates because there are usually lower doses prescribed which lead to fewer instances of addiction. However, these drugs can be considered dangerous when they are combined with alcohol. Mixing barbiturates with alcohol can cause heightened and harmful
This New York Times article tells a story of overprescribing in the elderly and its consequences on quality life. As pharmacists, we are especially familiar with the physician’s tendency to overprescribe medications in elderly patients with various comorbid conditions. This article brings up a plethora of issues that are common focus points of the geriatric pharmacy course in ACPHS. The use of sedating drugs in which increase the risk of falls and debilitating hip fractures in a population that is already at a high risk for fractures (the elderly) is not only imprudent, but counterproductive to the overall heath outcomes of the patient. The article specially mentions the use of benzodiazepines which are on the BEERs criteria list of medications
Sleep is important not only for promoting healing, but also for the overall well-being of the individual. When there are problems with the sleeping pattern, it impacts the overall health and safety of the older adult. The person will not have enough rest and will be too tired to perform activities surrounding daily living. We have to assess the risk factors contributing to the problems of sleep disturbance and these might be “related to poor sleep hygiene, including an irregular sleep schedule, environmental noise or light, and the use of stimulants” (Mauk, 2014, p. 581). If the sleeping pattern is not assessed, possible complications will happen, such as falls that could lead to bodily injuries.
Martha is a 65 year old lady who suffers from insomnia based on the preliminary symptoms of sleeplessness. She is also under severe stress from her mum’s dependence condition which makes her unhappy with her retirement. Martha’s mum’s condition is of great influence to her insomnia disorder for she only thinks of her through out the day, caring for her leaving Martha with little time to check on her health. Insomnia is a disorder that mostly affects the elderly though it may affect people from all ages. It is the lack of sleep even when one feels to have some sleep. It is not a stand alone disease but a symptom which is defined by the duration one lacks quality sleep. Transient insomnia is not having sleep for a week, short term insomnia is lack of adequate sleep for 2-3 weeks, while sleeplessness for a month is termed as chronic insomnia. Various studies have shown that insomnia affects women more often than men and that 30%-50% of elderly Americans experience difficulty in initiating and maintaining adequate sleep. Diagnosing insomnia in a patient the health practitioner would evaluate the patient medical record and other factors that may contribute to insomnia. For example, snoring, psychological factors such as stress levels and drug use. Martha’s physician would check on her medical
1. What is the nurse's highest priority for a patient experiencing sleep deprivation? What would we teach them about this? What treatment would be expected? Safety would be highest priority; sleep deprivation causes psychomotor deficits. Interventions that can help with sleep deprivation would be avoiding stimulating activities in the hours before bed. Avoid exercise, caffeine, and screen time just before bed. It’s also a good idea to avoid eating a large meal, as this can interfere with healthy sleep. Create a comfortable sleep environment. One medication that the patient can be prescribed on would be Zolpidem is a short-acting hypnotic that will help the patient initiate sleep and awaken without untoward symptoms of drowsiness. Also, Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and galanin are sleep-promoting neurotransmitters that can be used as a treatment.
Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder. It can have a devastating impact on one’s emotion, physical, occupation and social life. While it occasionally can be seen in the clinical setting as a primary diagnosis, it most often presents as a comorbidity to a medical or psychiatric issue;
In the article “Sleepless in Stepdown” written by Joanne Matukaitis, MSN, RN, FABC, NE-BC; Thea Eckman, MSN, RN, CCRN; Kristan Baxter, BSN, CCRN-CSC; Elisabeth Bradley, MS, RN, APN; Helen Hawrylack, BSN, CCRN; Sharmila Johnson, MSN, RN, APN, CCRN; Ruth Mooney, PhD, MN, RN-BC; Donna Papanicolas, RN, and Patricia Brigss, MSN, RN, CCRN, HTP, discuss issues of possible sleep disturbances in the recovery process in the hospital. Their theory basically says that sleep disturbances may lead to extended stays in the hospital, but also how the patient recovers in the process. The authors’ also address the fact that physiologic, behavioral, and functional outcomes may also be influenced by sleep disturbance.
Recent studies show that 38% of people who use this product as an escape to sleeping at night are suffering with liver disorders. Taking this product misdirected sends wrong messages to your body. It puts your body to sleep when your body cant or doesn’t want to. It slows you down when you body is not ready to slow down. It controls your body almost opposite of how it should or wants to be run. The day after you take this product improperly, you feel like your dragging along, sluggish and weak. Maybe you did get to fall asleep the night before but you sure put a beating on your body for the next day.
Discussion: Ms.Bravo reported that Kyle was prescribed a new medication, Trazadone Rx anxiety, and insomnia. Ms.Bravo stated that Kyle experienced an adverse side effect (A migraine) that kept him awake all night. HWE advised Ms. Bravo
Agitation is often managed with the use of medications or restraints. The implementation of these methods can cause both psychological and physiological problems. Medications given to a person with brain damage can lead to unpredictable responses. It has been found that specifically, Benzodiazepine medications, which often result in sedation or relaxation can cause agitation, insomnia or aggression in those patients with Dementia. The treatment then for these behaviors is usually more sedative drugs; thus continuing a vicious cycle of unresolved behavior. Other side effects common in sedatives are confusion, disorientation, and blurred vision; resulting in safety concerns for the individual. Improvement in communication and modification in
The first clinical trial for Xyrem, titled Safety and Efficacy of Xyrem Oral Solution (Sodium Oxybate) Compared With Placebo in Narcoleptic Patients was conducted by Orphan Medical. The study began in December 2000 with approximately 200 people enrolled. The purpose was to test the safety and efficacy of Xyrem when given to patients who are diagnosed with narcolepsy. The patients who were using any medication for cataplexy had to stop taking it during this trial. Patients were prescribed a dose oral solution of either Xyrem or a placebo during a 10 to 11 week period. Symptoms of narcolepsy will be recorded and evaluated. Patients had permission to continually use the medications at constant doses during the trial. Each patient had to visit the sleep center for 1 to 3 daytime visits plus 4 overnight visits to complete the trial. This trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter trial. An NDA (New Drug Application) was sent to the FDA during the same year of this clinical trial. It was given a priority review, where the FDA will accelerate the review process for a drug compared to standard review times.
Many people throughout Missouri, and elsewhere, use over-the-counter and prescription sleep aids. In fact, NBC News reports that as of 2015, at least 8.6 million people across the U.S. take prescription sleeping pills. These medications may help people get the rest that their bodies need. However, a recent study found that they may also pose a significant hazard for motorists.
Benzodiazepines were first created in 1960 by Hoffmann-La Roche. Today they are very helpful for a variety of mental health problems such as anxiety and sleep disorders, muscle relaxation, and the prevention of seizures. However, over the last decade there have been further developments in our knowledge of the risks and benefits of these drugs. The Psychopharmacology Special Interest Group of the Royal College of Psychiatrists and the British Association for Psychopharmacology together examined these developments, and then provided their recommendations for clinical practice. Together they said that while benzodiazepines have many beneficial effects, the potential for dependence or harmful effects must be considered as well (Baldwin D.S., Aitchison K.,
The use of any medication such as a benzodiazepine to assist with Miguel’s difficulty sleeping would not be considered at this time because of his alcohol use. The mixture of a benzodiazepine and alcohol can be dangerous, therefore not until his alcohol use is under control can a sleep aid, anxiety or depression medication can be prescribed. It is even more imperative that this is taken into consideration to ensure that Miguel takes the necessary steps to seek help.
Sleep disorders alter ones sleep pattern and often results in the inability to either sleep or sleep soundly. They often cause you to feel restless, tired, fatigued, and irritable. It is estimated that nearly 75 percent of adult Americans experience sleep disorder symptoms at least a few nights per week. At the same time, sleep disturbances in some form are seen in as many as 25 to 30 percent of infants and children (“Sleep Disorders” 2013). Clearly a huge conundrum in the world, sleep disorders affect an inordinate amount of people. Millions of people suffer or have suffered from a sleep disorder at one point in their lives and if mistreated can impact organ systems functioning negatively. Physical disturbances, medical issues,