Early Homo Sapiens: Uniregional versus Multiregional Theory Essay
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As fossil evidence has shown, we see that all pre-human forms, from Proconsul to Australopithecines, have resided in parts of Africa. We don’t see any movement out of Africa until the appearance of the Homo erectus fossils. These fossils have been found not only in Africa, but have also been found in parts of Europe and Asia. This is when scientists begin to disagree on how these pre-modern humans spread from Africa to other continents. Some scientists believe in the hypothesis known as the Multiregional Theory. This theory states that Homo erectus left Africa about two million years ago and from there migrated to Europe and Asia. These H. erectus then evolved, simultaneously, into Homo sapiens, or the modern looking and…show more content…
H. erectus then traveled to other continents from there about two million years ago. These pre-modern humans that were spread out all over Asia and Europe were then believed to evolve into H. sapiens autonomously. This theory helps scientists to explain why there are genetic and phonotypical differences between “races”, such as skin color, hair color, facial features, and so forth. It additionally explains why we have some evidence of H. erectus fossils being in places other than Africa.
Many scientists discredit this hypothesis because of the unlikely probability of the mutations and conditions needed to be present. Mutations and the selection for these mutations must occur in order for a species to evolve. “Evolution certainly does involve randomness, it does involve unpredictable chance. For example, the origin of new genetic variation by mutation is a process that involves a great deal of chance,” (Futuyma). Mutations are random and often times aren’t even expressed in an organism’s phenotype. For natural selection to occur first, a mutation must occur, the mutation cannot kill or maim the offspring, and that mutation must be beneficial to the species before it will begin to be selected for, and therefore change the species. In this theory, all groups of H. erectus must have experienced similar mutations and similar natural pressures to select for the mutations to evolve simultaneously in different places in the world. It must also be taken into account that