Ecological Model Of Oral Health

Decent Essays
The ecological model is a descriptive model that can be used to further understand barriers to oral health behaviors by illustrating interactions between various levels of determinants including intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, community and public policy. (Glanz and Rimer, 2005). Fisher-Owens, Gnasky, Platt, Weintraub, Soobadar, Bramlett and Newacheck (2007) created an ecological model of children’s oral health that shows interactions between genetics and biology, social environment, physical environment, health-influencing behaviors and medical and dental care at the individual, family and community levels. For the purposes of this study, this model had been simplified to reflect the most-often cited social and behavioral determinants…show more content…
Diet is a direct child-level contributing behavior to oral health outcomes. Children who frequently consume large amounts of fermentable carbohydrates are more susceptible to caries than those who do not (Yuen, Wiegand, Hill, Magruder, Slate, Salinas & London, 2011). The risk increases when children are given a bottle of anything besides water to drink throughout the night (Lemos, Myaki, Walter, & Zuanon, 2014). Children who eat a higher amount of fruits, vegetables, dairy, and whole grains are less likely to develop carious lesions. (Nunn, Nraunstein, Kaye, Dietrich, Garcia & Henshaw, 2009).
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a large source of fermentable carbohydrates, as well as a major contributing factor to dental caries. SSBs are both acidogenic and cariogenic. The acids released when oral bacteria metabolize sugars are intensified by the acid contents of SSBs, increasing the risk for ECC (Cheng, Yang, Shao, Hu and Zhou, 2009). Four to five percent of children in the U.S. are heavy consumers of SSBs (Han & Powell, 2013).
Home oral health care is another direct individual-level contributing factor to children’s oral health (Armfield, Mejia, & Jameson, 2013). Young children often do not have the dexterity to adequately remove plaque from all areas of the mouth (Schwatrz, 2013). Inadequate plaque removal, combined with a diet high in fermentable carbohydrates puts a child at greater risk for developing dental caries.
Family-level Contributing
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