Ecology: Water and Aquatic Habitats

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Ecology is concerned with the study of organisms and their habitats. This includes the interdependence of various populations, their impact on each other and their surroundings, the effect of the surroundings on their behaviour, as well as the ways in which the organisms and the environment change in response to each other. A pond and its inhabitants provide a good example of these interrelationships. A pond contains:
a. soil consisting of rock, minerals and dead remains of organisms
b. water with minerals
c. aquatic plants including algae
d. aquatic animals like snails and tadpoles
e. bacteria and other microorganisms such as protozoans
All these components interact to produce a system called an ecosystem which is constantly
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Aquatic animals prefer darker waters during the day and ascend to the surface when light intensity is reduced. Flowering of plants also depends on light. pH This determines the acidity or alkalinity of the water in aquatic habitats or the soil in terrestrial habitats. The pH tends to be neutral at a value of 7 and increases if alkaline contents are abundant. Organisms are affected by the pH of their environment. Fresh water mollusks tend to be deficient on waters with a pH less than 6.

Winds carry water currents and waves and also rain-bearing clouds. Wind also helps in the dispersal of fruits and seeds and causes pollination in some plants. The drying effect of strong air currents can cause a high rate of transpiration. The fauna and flora of mountains differ due to winds. The windward side of mountains has luscious vegetation while the leeward side is sparsely vegetated.
Pressure varies from the depths of the ocean to the higher altitudes of atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure reduces when one ascends from sea level. Mountainous areas have lower atmospheric pressure than lowlands.
Salinity is the concentration of dissolved salts in the surrounding environment. Aquatic organisms have to maintain osmotic balance between their body fluids and their aquatic habitats. The concentration of salts in the body of marine animals is close to that in surrounding water. They are therefore able to
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