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Contents Page
1) Introduction
2) A critical review of competencies, skills, theories and approaches
3) Bureaucratic Views
4) Theory X and Theory Y
5) The Systems Theory
6) The Contingency Theory
7) Role Theory
8) Paradigm 1: Christian scientific education management
9) Paradigm 2: Education management
10) Paradigm 3: Education governance and management
11) Collegiality Theory
12) What should Effective Educational Management look like in schools?
13) Conclusion
14) Reference Page

1) Introduction:
Schools in South Africa are a unique kind of organisation, with clearly defined goals and policies. Schools function through a hierarchical structure of authority whereby every aspect of the school needs
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The principal is the head of the bureaucratic feature and teachers specialise according to their expertise as they follow many rules and regulations. Learners too follow set rules and regulations. The bureaucratic theory emphasises as a top – down management ethos and is reflected in traditional internal management structures which inhibit the development of collegiality in schools.
One major challenge with this theory is that the ‘bureaucracy and its survival become ends in themselves, and the goals of schooling become subsidiary’ (Holmes and Waynne, 1989: 64), meaning that in practice it may be difficult to ascertain the goals of educational establishments. Also, in practice, the decision – making process which is seen as rational, is not conducted in this manner as human behaviour is seen as irrational thus influencing the nature of decisions making. Furthermore, individuals contribution is ignored and underestimated and assumes
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