Anthropologists have come to understand the evolution of man’s behavior by observing our closest primates such as chimpanzees. Cooperative behavior among primates can have many similarities and differences when compared to humans. Humans are intensively cooperative by communication by languages and interactions with others. Nonhuman primates can very much communicate very easily among their social groups, for example, the chimpanzee can very much strategically cooperate much like human, and also the chimpanzee can spontaneously initiate and maintain cooperative behaviors. Therefore are able to cooperate to reach a goal such as hunting for food or scaring off dangerous predators. This cooperative trait can really show the intelligence of these primates and how they are distinguished from other
Within this essay, we will study more in depth the behavioral as well as physical traits of two primates at a zoo from their interaction with their peers to their place in the group. This observation would enable us to further understand the possible existing correlation between humans and primates. First, I studied a female chimpanzee with her baby, and then, a dominant male gorilla, in San Francisco Zoo at about noon, on May 23, 2015, for an hour each. Even though they share some similarities such as having a large brain, living for a long time, and being bored in their enclosure, they are still different; when gorillas are the largest, chimpanzees are the smartest. In fact, chimps use tools to catch food, they would not be able to reach
When you think of an intelligent and social animal, what do you think of? A chimp, a dolphin, or a dog? Actually, an elephant can be included as well. Elephants have been proven to show cognitive abilities through a new experiment and study where they tested elephants to see if they would work together to gain food. Three pieces of information that talk about this incredible new study are the article “Elephants Can Lend a Helping Hand” by Virginia Morell, the video ”Elephants Shows Cooperation” presented by Discovery News. Although these selections talk about the same topic, they are different in many ways. The video is different from the two texts because of the differences in the information
The majority of organisms that fall into the category of primates tend to live in relatively large group size and work together within their habitats to increase the overall survival rate. There are multiple benefits of living in larger groups which include increased genetic diversity, increased protection from predators and even more opportunity for developing learning strategies . On the other hand, animals living in smaller groups do not necessarily have as much completion for resources or
Sea Lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are an invasive species of lamprey that, while native to marine environments, have moved into the freshwater great lakes. Sea lampreys first entered the great lakes through canals, which were revolutionary means of transportation at the times. There were multiple canals, connecting the Atlantic Ocean to the great lakes. The lampreys were previously impeded by Niagara falls. Now with the canals connecting both bodies of water, there was no longer an obstacle.
In continuing with the shark example, lemon sharks have demonstrated behavioral adaptations through social learning. “Social learning is taxonomically widespread and can provide distinct behavioral advantages, such as in finding food or avoiding predators more efficiently” (Guttridge, van Dijk, Stamhuis, Krause, & Gruber, 2013, p. 55). Social learning theories believe that individuals learn particular behaviors by observing those around them and then mimicking that behavior. Social learning in lemon sharks can occur when a particular behavior, such as foraging, is exhibited by the other sharks in their given population, and that behavior attracts positive attention, acting as either a stimulus or a reward. In a study by Guttridge et al. (2013), researchers were able to track some of the social behaviors that are demonstrated by the lemon shark, including following or leading the other sharks in their group, accelerated swimming at potential pray, and target zone entry based on obtaining a particular stimulus or reward. These learned behaviors will be advantageous to future populations since they will be demonstrated to the upcoming generations. Similarly, changes in migration patterns has been seen in several species of sharks, predominantly as a result of overfishing and pollution of their habitats.
Bonobos use a wide range of communication patterns to help forage for food. In an article titled Preliminary Observation on the Feeding Behavior of Pan Paniscus, researchers studied the feeding behavior of Bonobos over a seven-month period. The researchers reported that when a small group (2-4 Bonobos) located a tree bearing ripe fruit, they would signal by vocalizing to the rest of the group (Badrian, 1981, p. 173-181). Bonobos use five distinct calls when searching for food and a combination of these calls to describe the food quality of the source that they have located (Clay, 2011). When a preferred food is found, peeps and barks are given to the others compared to yelps and grunts that are given to lesser preferred foods. When Bonobos have acquired their food, they are social in their food sharing patterns. A study done by Vicky M. Oeize and her team showed that hunting and meat sharing had more social than nutritional benefits (Oeize, 2008). In another study done that looked at the specifics of how they share their food, the results showed that it is voluntary (Hare, 2010). The experiment was conducted in three adjacent rooms, with the food being in the center room. One Bonobo was placed in the center room and rather than consuming all the food alone, eighty percent of the subjects opened one of the adjacent doors to share with a recipient, even if it meant the recipient would eat all the food.
On the ocean floor of tropical waters around Asia, Africa, and Australia, you may see a diverse array of ocean plants, but not all are what they seem. Some of these plants aren’t plants at all, they’re actually small tube-like creatures called Garden Eels. These eels bob up and down in their burrows, and together as a colony to look like sea grass swaying in the warm currents of the Indo-Pacific region.
Yerkes, highlights that both chimpanzees and humans are influenced by the public in which they engage characteristics of mingling, ranks and ownership (Glick, 105). Mingling is an important feature because knowing that chimps like to socialize means that they like engaging in conversations and surrounding themselves with others but just like humans without socializing it can have a negative effect on one. Besides socializing also comes with having a leader hence managing the group and making important decisions in the community. These are just some examples of anthropodenial between humans and primates that are
One of the fish studies that provides evidence of convergence and cognitive functioning in fish, is Schuster studies on archerfish. Archerfish use a blast of water from their mouths to hunt insects, and Shuster believes these archerfish are making complex intelligent decisions while doing so. Shuster explains how the archerfish hunt, and how they cant hit targets out of water at very high speeds, but in many of Shusters experiments it was concluded that the ability for an archerfish to shoot insects at full speed, and on an angle, was something they learned by watching other fish perform this task. Social learning was very popular with the archerfish.
Yes, the article provided that cooperation is a more effective way to success and survive for human and primates. Also, human and apes are generally prefer to cooperate with each other. For example, chimpanzees try to avoid conflict as well as people offer each other support and live in peace. Furthermore, people and primates use social networking strategies to make life better, like making friends, building teams. This is what the article provide the equal behavior between human and primates.
Some researchers have gone back and “electrofished again after 1 year, and recaptured tagged fish were tested against unmarked fish for differences in growth and condition” (Thompson et al. 1997). While other researchers such as (Hauck 1994) dissected fish “that were shocked with 110 volts alternating current and found several which had fractured vertebrae and ruptured dorsal arteries” (Spencer 1967). More research was done comparing” the effects of three electrical pulse shapes. Of 209 fish captured, 50% suffered spinal injuries involving an average of eight vertebrae that were dislocated” (Sharber et al 2011). No matter how research is being conducted, most researchers are concluding that electrofishing does cause harm to fish that are collected using that method of
Research by Yamamoto, Humle and Tanaka in 2009 concluded that chimpanzees show altruism only when prompted or pressured rather than voluntarily . This particular empirical research challenges the evidence proposed by prior researchers and tests the limits of chimpanzee’s altruistic nature. Using colour-coded tokens, one of which allowed for a partner to share the reward with the test subject and one of which gave the test subject all of the reward, several chimps were tested as to their response. Results showed a tendency for the chimpanzee to take the prosocial option in situations both with and without peer pressure. Abnormally results showed that pressure or harassment from partners reduced the chimpanzee’s inclination to take the prosocial option. Although these results challenge prior research  they are limited as they are not conclusive and raise questions of their own to reach a complete understanding. These research results are significant in challenging an already established understanding of chimpanzee’s altruistic traits and acts as a good contrast to other references. This resource stands out as it does not make conclusive statements out of abnormal results but rather opens up a reader’s opinion and presents issues further
Have you ever seen an electric eel? Well if you have you have probably learned that they are very interesting . Electric eels can be very harmful if they shock you. They are actually very interesting to learn about. I think they have cool bodies and their habitat and diets are interesting and they have a lot of interesting facts. Therefore I think the electric eels are very interesting.