Effect of Gender on Self-Esteem in China

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Running Head: VALID OR NOT Effects of Gender on Self-Esteem in China Name of Student School Abstract Six studies present varying results on the effect of gender on self-esteem. Watkins & Yu (1993) found gender to have little effect on self-esteem but much on self-concept and self-satisfaction, especially among Chinese women. Zhang & Leung (2002) suggested the moderating factors of gender and age in the connection between individual and collective self-esteem and life satisfaction. Their research concluded that the connection is stronger on the male, thus the genders require different tasks in order to be effective. Huang et al (2012) found that the androgynous personality type as the ideal one and that gender and grade influenced the distribution of personality types. Yang & Xia (2006) listed the cognitive and social factors in condom use among Shanghai commercial sex entertainment workers. Zhao et al (2011) established the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers to vulnerable Chinese children. Most caregivers are female. Li et al (2010) enumerated the parental, behavioral and psychological factors to smoking among Chinese teenagers, including female. Other studies (Somislo & Ortho, 2013; Mak et al, 2012) say that gender does not significantly affect low-self-esteem or depression and that Chinese teenage boys tend to have a higher body esteem than girls. Introduction Gender Affects Self-Concept and Self-Satisfaction A 1993 study conducted with male and
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