Effect of Inhaling Various Concentrations of CO2 on Electrical Activity of the Heart

1261 WordsJul 14, 20186 Pages
Effect of Inhaling Various Concentrations of CO2 on Electrical Activity of the Heart The human body functions best in a relatively stable environment. Deviations out of the acceptable ranges of tolerance have unpleasant consequences. In such a way, drastic changes in the air humans breathe have calamitous effects of body. Respiration is the basis for gas exchange, as oxygen is inhaled and carbon dioxide is exhaled. In some settings such as in small, enclosed rooms, when oxygen consumption exceeds production, or with diseases such COPD, humans breathe in dangerously high concentrations of CO2. For this reason, it is important to analyze the properties of carbon dioxide, its role in the body, and the effects on cardiac activity under…show more content…
The Dorsal Respiratory Group in the brainstem consists of inspiratory neurons, which in coordination with inspiratory neurons of the Ventral Respiratory Group, receive signals by the afferent pathway from mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors and signal for inspiration. The phrenic motor neurons receive the efferent signal via the medulla oblongata to cause the diaphragm to contract down and external intercostal muscles to contract up and o, and the negative pressure causes air to enter lungs from the atmosphere. The oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide diffuses into lungs. Most oxygen molecules then bind to hemoglobin in red blood cells. The expiratory neurons of VRG send impulses to expiratory muscles of rectus abdominus and internal intercostals contract down while the diaphragm relaxes, and this causes air to leave the lugs and out the mouth or nostrils. The exhaled air contains about 5.6 percent CO2 (Dakota Gasification, n.d.). During eupnea, quiet normal breathing, inspiration takes about 1-2 seconds and expiration takes 2-3 seconds (Mateika, 2007). Humans normally breathe at 12 -15 breathes per minute. The total lung capacity is slightly below 6 liters (Tamarkin, 2011). The tidal volume, amount of air breathed in at rest, is about 500 milliliters. Humans can breathe in around 3 liters and out 5 liters, termed as vital capacity. The residual volume, the amount of air

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