Effect of Poultry Manure, Cow Dung and Npk 15:15:15 on Okro

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Okra was domesticated in West and Central Africa (Cobley and Steele, 1976) and known as ‘Okro’ in the Anglophone African countries as a fast growing common annual vegetable widely consumed in Africa (Schippers, 2000). It is one of the numerous vegetable crops cultivated in Nigeria (Anon, 1989) where a total of 1 – 2 million hectares annually are put under cultivation (Anon, 1980, Fmawrrd, 1980). Thus, it is in a great demand in tropical countries (Greensil,1976). Fig. 1.0 a picture of an okro plant
Okro requires a moderate rainfall of 80 – 100 cm well distributed to produce
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In fresh poultry excreta uric acid or urate is the most abundant nitrogen compound (40-70 per cent of total N) while urea and ammonium are present in small amounts (Krogdahl and Dahlsgard, 1981). The ratio of litter to manure and the moisture content caused considerable variation among manures from different houses (Mountney, 1983). Poultry manure is used as a source of N, P and K but litter also contains Ca, Mg, S and some micronutrients (Mullins et al., 2002). Mineralisation occurs quite rapidly following application of poultry waste. Bitzer and Sims (1988) found that approximately 69 per cent of organic N in poultry litter incorporated into a sandy loam soil was mineralized in 140 days. Shortly following application, conditions generally favour volatilization of the ammonia, calcium and Nitrogen. Wolf et al. (1988) found that 37 per cent of the total - N in surface applied poultry manure was volatilized in 11 days. Poultry manure application at 10 t/ha was observed to improve the physical properties of soil (Ravikumar and Krishna-moorthy, 1975). Soil physical properties such as bulk density, water holding capacity and percentage water stable aggregation were noted to be favouarbly influenced by poultry waste addition to soil (Weil and Kroontje, 1979). Mbagwu (1992) reported that poultry manure significantly decreased bulk density and increased total and macroporosity, infiltration capacity and available water capacity. Mullins et al.,

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