Effect of different size beads on the activity of immobilised catalyse

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Effect of different size beads on the activity of immobilised catalyse

Aim: To find out how varying the size of beads containing yeast varies the rate of activity of catalase in a fermentation reaction of hydrogen peroxide with immobilised enzymes.

A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, without itself being used up in the process however it maybe affected physically i.e. degradation of the surface of the catalyst. Catalysts work by reducing the activation energy needed for a particular reaction by offering a different path for the reaction to take place. Activation energy is the energy, which needs to be supplied before a reaction can occur, basically the
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Lock and Key theory

Enzymes are specific to a particular substrate molecule or a restricted group of substrate molecules.

Surface area to volume

Smaller organisms have larger surface area to volume ratio’s (surface area divided by volume) than larger ones. In principle the greater the surface area, the more active site in contact with the substrate therefore it increases the rate of reaction, and the thinner the separating layers. Another factor to consider is the larger the volume of the drop the more enzymes it contains inside it.

BACKGROUND:

Catalase (the enzyme) is found in yeast, it breaks down hydrogen peroxide (the substrate) into water and oxygen according to this equation.

2H2O2(aq) -------------------> 2H2O(l) + O2(g) + catalase(aq)

One molecule of catalase can break 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide each second.

Factors that affect the rate of reaction

§ Increasing the temperature increases the kinetic energy at which the enzyme and substrate collide. Increasing the average energy of each particle meaning that more particles have enough energy for the particles to collide and bond. However this effect is short lived as most catalysts have a specific heat temperature range above or below that will slow down the rate of reaction, or even cause

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