Essay on Effective Instructions on Recall

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Effective Instructions on Recall


A study was conducted involving fifty students, randomly selected, that learned three lists of ten nouns. It was expected that the group receiving narrative instructions would score higher than the group receiving the repetition instructions. Two minutes was allowed for each list. The control group was assigned to learn the list of words by repeating them. The other group was randomly distributed tests with instructions that said to make a narrative out of the nouns given in order, so that they could be recalled in that order. The test was conducted to confirm that instructions would aid the processes of retention and recall in memory, according to
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According to Weiton (2004) This involves forming a 'memory code', or connections with other information in storage. New information is encoded when it is connected with existing information in the memory base, increasing its 'depth of processing'. For example, when making a 'memory code' one might highlight how a word sounds or a visualization of that word. By connecting the word to other information (memories), it is stored more efficiently.

Storage is the maintaining of encoded information in memory over time. Psychologists have mainly focused on what hinders or helps memory and as a result there has been controversy as to how human beings maintain information. An older theory is the existence of long-term short-term memory stores, yet a more recent view on memory is the levels of processing theory. What the levels of processing theory proposes is that These different modes of encoding lead to separate depths of processing. The deeper the processing, the longer the information will stay in memory for use in recall. Recall is the act of recovering information from memory storage. Studies in recovery have been focused on which strategies help in recovering information from memory stores.

Craik and Lockhart (1972) describe short-term store (hereafter STS) as the memory in which information may be forgotten in less
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