Effective Leaders Motivate And Motivate Followers And Achieve Collective Goals

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Effective leaders motivate and inspire followers to achieve collective goals. Within an organisational context, the changing nature of the workplace and the employment relationship has seen a shifting focus to the importance of establishing trust between leaders and followers, emphasising employee wellbeing and team orientated decision-making. However leaders who exhibit toxic traits have lasting effects, not only upon their followers, but also the organisation. From a psychological perspective, this essay aims to analyse the characteristics of a toxic leader, by investigating the ‘dark side’ of leadership, exploring the consequences of narcissism and Machiavellianism within organisational leadership as well as on an individual level.
Machiavellianism has been consistently associated with toxic leadership throughout literature (Drory & Gluskinos. 1980; Becker & O 'Hair. 2007; Deluga, 2001). Machiavellianism is an extreme inclination to acquire and maintain power within a socially competitive situation (Judge, Piccolo, & Kosalka, 2009). Machiavellianism leaders display a lack of affect in interpersonal relationships and limited concern with morality displayed through manipulative, deceitful and exploitive behaviour in the interests of personal goals (Becker & O 'Hair, 2007). Niccolo Machiavellistated that a leader should possess an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt (Deluga, 2001). High Machiavellianism personalities take on carefully crafted personas in
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