Effective Reading and Writing Instruction Essay

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Despite the importance of writing, many students are performing below grade level and lack the necessary skills needed to be successful (Zumbrunn & Krause, 2012; Santangelo & Olinghouse, 2009). There are many factors that shape students’ writing development but there are others that contribute to students’ writing problems. According to Graham (2008) and Zumbrunn & Krause (2012), students and teachers both struggle to grasp the concept due to the complex nature of writing and writing instruction. Therefore, many factors hinder student achievement and teachers’ approach to instruction. Teachers must understand why writing is important and its development before trying to teach it. However, many teachers lack this knowledge (Graham,…show more content…
This type of instruction also includes a strong emphasis on handwriting and spelling (Troia & Graham, 2003). Troia and Graham (2003) go on to say that the focus on mechanics may lead students to believe that how a text looks is more important than the actual content. There is little opportunity for students to write authentic pieces where they can use the basic skills they have learned. As a result, teachers’ assessment of student writing is not to look for how they have improved, but instead on the mistakes made in student writing. Since a lot of importance is placed on the mistakes students make in their writing, little attention is paid to the quality of writing and what good writing looks like. Students are instructed on how to write without any modeling or examples to compare their writing to or to apply what they have learned. Students gain confidence in their writing from more than just a textbook but from many models to which students can compare their work (Mascle, 2013). Giving students the opportunity to see these models and to engage in class writing would prevent some of the issues struggling writers are having (Dunn, 2011). When students do not know what is expected of them, they cannot measure up to the set standards and lose confidence in their writing abilities. They have a tendency of avoiding writing assignments and when they cannot, they tend to write less or more poorly than their peers. This lack of confidence greatly affects
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