Effective Use of Celebrity Endorsement as an Advertising Strategy

2878 Words Oct 4th, 2010 12 Pages
1.0 INTRODUCTION
This literature review purpose is to attain a better understanding of effective use of celebrity endorsement as an advertising strategy. The types of sources covered when conducting this research included journals, articles, books and dissertation which relevant to the celebrity endorsement. There are four main parts need to be emphasis, first is the history and background, second is evaluation of three theories model; which consists of TEARS model shows celebrity play an important role in facilitating advertising effectively, The Meaning Transfer Model refers to the description of endorsement process and Elaboration Likelihood Model which deals with circumstances and situation of endorsed product and target audience.
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For example, during the 2008 Presidential Campaign, Oprah Winfrey’s endorsement of Barack Obama had significantly effects on Obama’s political outcomes (Craig and Timothy, 2008). Similarity is the last attribute showing the endorser and the consumers having similar demography, social class and lifestyle in order to create more favorable attitudes to the brand.
According to Kamins (1989), celebrity spokesperson have greater credibility and more likable by consumer compare to non-celebrity spokesperson. Moreover, Choi et al. (2005) claim domestic endorsers are easily to identify when their cultural value in a country is similar with target audient. Johanna and Regina (2006) states that domestic endorsers are readily available and cost-efficient compared to international celebrity. Badminton athlete, Lee Chong Wei signed two-year endorsements deal with isotonic drinks 100PLUS (New Straits Times, 2009). His achievement proves that sports can become a successful career.

3.2 ELABORATION LIKELIHOOD MODEL (ELM)
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Figure 2: The Elaboration Likelihood Model
Source: Petty & Cacioppo, 1986
Petty and Cacioppo (1986) developed ELM (see Figure 2) to differentiate the process of consumer respond to persuasive communications in advertising and lead to influencing consumer’s attitudes. This ELM is important for marketing communications, especially in the aspect of consumers high and low involvement. So, if the level of

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