Effectiveness Of Parental Involvement

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Introduction Previous studies and have proven that school-aged children whose parents and or guardians who are active and involved in their early learning experiences are more likely to be successful in school than children who parents and guardians are not. As cited in The Concept of Parental Involvement (2007), Joep T.A. Bakker and Eddie Denessen offer various definitions of parental involvement. They summarize parental involvement as “parental behaviors related to child’s school or schooling that can be observed as manifestations of their commitment.” Student success here can be defined as intellectual potential, social, and cognitive growth. The focus of this literature review will examine critically what has been previously…show more content…
The microsystem, which is the child and family and their strong influence on the development and school success of the child and the effort and energy required. The second level is the mesosystem affect the child and the family in a less direct way, which include the neighborhood institutions such as school, recreational facilities, stores etc. The third level is the exosystemic, which consist of an examination of local policies. These may include family leave policies for employers and social services from a community agency; believed to influence the quality of family life. Gordon’s fourth and final level is the macrosystem, which “represents the major social, economic, and political aspects of larger society.” (Lunenburg & Irby, 2002, p. 4) According to Gordon, changes at this level have the potential for affecting large numbers of children and families. (Lunenburg & Irby, 2002) (2) System Development Corporation (SDC): Originated from a California-based research firm that conducted a large study of parent involvement categories. This research was funded and supported by federal grants. Researchers found several practices, which can be separated into six categories: “home-school relations, home-based instruction, school support, instruction at school, parent education, and advisory groups.” (Lunenburg & Irby, 2002, p. 5) (3) Berger’s Role Categories: Irby
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