A child’s sense of self as separate from the world is formulated early in development. Children exposed to early trauma, especially by a primary care giver, develop a distorted sense of the self, others, and the world. When exposed to trauma, children become overwhelmed and are unable to effectively self-regulate thus leading to a disjointed sense of self. They have a tendency to lose hope and expect that life will be dangerous thus challenging their ability to survive (Terr, 1992). Survival becomes the predominant drive for children exposed to trauma and their focus becomes toward responding and adapting to a potentially threatening environment. Feelings of trust and the sense of self become compromised as resources are allocated toward coping with threats. Traumatized children experience guilt and low self-esteem and perceive themselves as unlovable and unworthy of protection or love (Johnson, 1985, 1987).
As children go through life, they will come upon stressful situations and experiences. Many children will work through the challenges that life brings, build resilience and move forward, however, some children may experience more extreme traumatic events that can result in life difficulties due to serious trauma symptoms that are much harder to manage. Trauma-Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is an evidence based treatment model designed to help youth who have experienced a significantly traumatic life event. TF-CBT uses skills and strength based therapy to address symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety (Cohen et al, 2006). This research is an examination of trauma focused cognitive behavior therapy as a model of practice including the areas of history and development of the model, its relationship with other models of practice, considerations of appropriate populations, methods and components for treatment, effectiveness of the intervention and relevance for social work practice.
Childhood and adolescence is a crucial time for humans- a time full of physical, emotional, and cognitive development. Upon observing the significant impact that trauma induced stress can have on adults following time in combat or an injury, when adults have fully matured in all areas, it raises the question of what influence post-traumatic stressors can have on development in children. This issue was so significant that in the DSM-5, the psychologists introduced a new, and separate, section of criteria for PTSD that specifically relates to the preschool subtype, or those individuals six years and younger. The first age specific sub-type for this disorder is important due to the rising number of studies and cases of PTSD in children.
Studies have shown that many people fail to report cases of traumatic childhood events to the concerned authorities. Such activities include child abuse, violence, and other forms of maltreatment. Research also shows that the reaction of children to trauma differ depending on the resiliency of the affected child and his or her age. For instance, preschool and young children may not be in a position to develop the ability to identify areas where they can find security and thus establish great fear in response to trauma. Sometimes, the concern can extend beyond the circumstances of the traumatic event. Also, the caregivers in foster homes may not be in a position to notice any signs of traumatic stress in the child. Such symptoms that go
The key concept of this literature review is to better understand how childhood trauma is associated with mental health, such as post-traumatic stress disorder
The world that we live in is perilous and full of danger. During those times of danger, traumatic events can occur. People from all walks of life have had trouble dealing with this kind of trauma and can be either scarred or changed by it. This is especially true for children. We tend to overlook children and try to focus on adults when it comes to traumatic events. However, studies have shown that even children are affected by these problems and need assistance in getting over them. Mental health therapists and psychologists have been doing research and developing techniques on this age group that is adolescence. This essay will exhibit several professionals that are studying this matter and developing which technique is best for the children in regards to their treatment.
CBITS is the most appropriate intervention program due to its focus on symptom reduction, improved functioning, improved grades and attendance, peer and parent support, and increased coping skills. The program reports use with students from 5th grade through 12th grade who have witnessed or experienced traumatic life events such as community and school violence, accidents and injuries, physical abuse and domestic violence, and natural and man-made disasters (CBITS, 2016). As compared to the other programs CBITS appeared to be all encompassing and showed better outcomes at 3-month follow-up. Additionally, CBITS is specifically designed to be administered by mental health clinicians in an actual school setting.
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) was stablished by Congress in 2000 and brings a comprehensive focus to childhood trauma. This network raises the average standard of care and improves access to services for traumatized children, their families and communities throughout the United States. The NCTSN defines trauma‑focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF‑CBT) as an evidence‑based treatment approach that is shown to help children, adolescents, and their caregivers overcome trauma‑related difficulties. It is designed to reduce negative emotional and behavioral responses following a traumatic event. The treatment addresses distorted beliefs related to the abuse and provides a supportive environment so the individual can talk about their traumatic experience. TF‑CBT also helps parents cope with their own emotional issues and develop skills to support their children.
This project is based on the idea that TF-CBT is more beneficial and has a greater outcome for short-term to long-term benefits than regular therapy sessions and interventions alone. Is a psychosocial treatment model designed to treat posttraumatic stress along with other related emotional and behavioral difficulties in children and adolescents, the concept was originally developed to begin to address the psychological trauma associated with child sexual abuse, but it has since been adapted for use with children who have a wide array of traumatic experiences, including community violence, traumatic loss, and the often multiple psychological traumas experienced by children in foster care placement. (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy,
Silverman, W. K., Ortiz, C. D., Viswesvaran, C., Burns, B. J., Kolko, D. J., Putnam, F. W., & Amaya-Jackson, L. (2008). Evidence-Based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 1, 156-183.
Chapter 10 examines various forms of abuse. Kanal (2011) sets forth that stress as it relates to abuse can cause Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. The author describes PSTD as a psychological disorder that is brought on by an event that occurs in a person’s life. PSTD is usually associated with military people returning from the combat but that is only one of many demographics that can be effected by the disorder; this chapter underscores in addition to PSTD abuse can manifest itself in a number of different ways. The author begins the discussion with child abuse. From a crisis professional’s perspective, dealing with children is complicated because depending on the age of the child, communication can be difficult. In addition, the child may
Common events that can trigger PTSD in minors include neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and psychological abuse (National Center for PTSD, 2015). Sometimes, adults tend to underestimate the severity of a child’s reaction after the event has taken place because some children disguise their feelings (Dyregrov & Yule, 2006, p. 177). If a parent is also suffering, it may affect their ability to emotionally support their child (Dyregrov & Yule, 2006, p. 177). The severity of the trauma, how the parents react to the trauma, and the child’s proximity to the trauma are three factors that increase the probability that a child will get PTSD (Dyregrov & Yule, 2006, p. 176). It is common for school-aged children suffering from this condition to show signs of disturbance in their playtime (National Center for PTSD, 2015). Severe PTSD symptoms in young children (less than six years old) may include wetting the bed after learning how to use the toilet, forgetting how to or losing the ability to talk, and being unusually clingy with a parent or another adult (NIMH, 2016). The signs of PTSD in teenagers are more similar to the signs that are seen in adults (National Center for PTSD, 2015). However, teenagers tend to show more impulsive, aggressive, and vengeful behavior (National Center for PTSD, 2015). Other factors that are related to later posttraumatic problems include prior psychiatric issues, prior exposure to trauma, the female gender, and family issues (Dyregrov & Yule, 2006, p.
removed from the family environment, a primary relative had to relocate or the death or destruction (e.g. fatal accident, domestic violence, natural disaster) of a close individual (Faust & Katchen, 2004). (Faust et al., 2004)The fourth factor emphasizes that age may be a factor in children’s responses to traumatic events which thus determines the course of therapy (Faust & Katchen, 2004). (Faust et al., 2004)Very young children struggle with cognitive components of cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies because it exceeds their developmental capabilities (Faust & Katchen, 2004). (Faust et al., 2004)As previously noted, a child is at a greater risk for the effects of severe sexual abuse in the first years of life (Faust & Katchen, 2004). (Faust et al., 2004)
There are many effects PTSD have on children. Children who are affected can experience changes in “academic performance, anger issues, worrying, hiding emotions, disrespect to parents and anyone in an authoritative role as well as a sense of loss, sadness and depression” (NCCP | Trauma Faced by Children of Military Families. (n.d.). There are three different categories identifying children who are exposed to PTSD and the way in which they respond are different. The three categories are: the over identified child, rescuer child and emotionally uninvolved child. “The over-identified child, may feel disconnected from their parents, so they may begin to act just like their parent(s) in order to connect. The rescuer child tries to fill adult shoes and take on those roles for their parent(s). The emotionally uninvolved child doesn’t get a lot of help on an emotional level which in turns causes problems in school, anxiety, depression and lead to relationship problems later in life” (PTSD: National Center for PTSD)..”
It is normal, following a traumatic experience, for a person to feel disconnected, anxious, sad and frightened. However, if the distress does not fade and the individual feels stuck with a continuous sense of danger as well as hurting memories, then that person might in fact be suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). PSTD could develop after a traumatic incident which threatens one’s safety or makes one to feel helpless (Dalgleish, 2010). Coping with traumatic events could be very difficult, but confronting one’s feelings and seeking professional assistance is usually the only way to properly treat PSTD. Many kids and adolescents worldwide experience events that are traumatizing. If exposure to trauma is not treated, it could lead to various mental health problems. Researchers have reported a connection between traumatization and increases in mood and anxiety disorders, but the most frequently reported symptoms of psychological distress are post-traumatic stress symptoms (Cohen, Mannarino & Iyengar, 2011).