Effects Of Cancer On The United States And Across The Globe

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1. Introduction and Problem Statement: Cancer has a major societal impact in the United States and across the globe. In 2015, an estimated 1,658,370 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in United States, and 589,430 people are estimated to die of the disease. Unfortunately, low cancer cell availability in human samples is a current barrier for early disease detection. There is an unmet medical need to improve methods of early cancer detection so that patients can receive treatment before cancer metastasizes to other areas of the body, resulting in better health outcomes. Several studies have explained the influence of the nanoscale topography such as nanosurface and structure in cell capture, growth, adhesion, and orientation. Every cell type has a characteristic profile based on its mechano-physical properties [1]. Cancer cells show higher translocation times and peak amplitudes compared with blood cells, and their pulse shapes are distinctively different. Ion Selective Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) have a huge advantage over traditional ion selective electrodes (ISEs) in that they avoid the high impedance by signal amplification. ISFETs generate low impedance signals and consume low power levels because of the transistor properties. Because of their small size, ISFETs can be miniature diagnosis devices, allowing low sample consumption combined with a rapid response. ISFETs make the selective detection of certain ions in complex samples more efficient and can open
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