Effects Of Overpopulation On The Planet 's Ecosystems

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Advancements in science such as medications and vaccines have caused birth rates to surpass mortality rates resulting in overpopulation. According to Population Paradox, an academic article by Mairi Macleod, an evolutionary biologist,“It took until 1800 for our numbers to reach 1 billion. Now the human population exceeds 7 billion and is set to reach 10 billion by 2085” (Macleod). Overpopulation is having detrimental effects on the planet 's ecosystems, which was discussed in the provided stimulus, The Struggle To Govern The Commons by Thomas Dietz. It stated that “In the absence of effective governance...the environment is in peril from increasing human population, consumption, and deployment of advanced technologies…” (Dietz). After…show more content…
David Cutler who works for the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies wrote an academic journal titled, The Determinants of Mortality, which stated that “Life expectancy at birth for our hunter–gatherer ancestors was perhaps 25 years...mortality rates began to drop in many different developed countries such as the Unites States where life expectancy at birth has risen from 47 years in 1900 to 78 years today” (Cutler). Although this only shows an extreme growth in life expectancy in developed countries, life expectancy in less developed countries or LDCs has increased as well just not as rapidly due to medicine not being as readily available. Also, LDCs tend to have high birth rates which contribute to overpopulation. The tremendous rise in life expectancy in most countries is due to the decline in deaths from infectious diseases, becoming apparent due to innovations in medicines such as antibiotics and vaccines. Penicillin, for example, has decreased mortality rates from infections. According to a textbook titled Introduction to Pharmacology, by Mannfred Hollinger with a Ph.D. in pharmacology from Stanford Medical School, “As the first antibiotic, penicillin lead the way to the treatment of microbial disease. Without penicillin, 75% of the people now alive would not be alive because their parents or grandparents would have died
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