Postpartum psychiatric disorders, particularly depression, has become the most underdiagnosed complication in the United States. It can lead to increased costs of medical care, inappropriate medical care, child abuse and neglect, discontinuation of breastfeeding, and family dysfunction and adversely affects early brain development (Earls, 2010). Over 400,000 infants are born to mothers that are depressed. One of 7 new mothers (14.5%) experience depressive episodes that impair maternal role function. An episode of major or minor depression that occurs during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth is called perinatal or postpartum depression (Wisner, Chambers & Sit, 2006). Mothers with postpartum depression experience feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that may make it difficult for them to complete daily care activities for themselves or for others (Postpartum Depression). The six stages of postpartum are denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance and PTSD. These stages may affect any women regardless of age, race, ethnicity, or economic status. However only a physician can diagnose a woman with postpartum depression. It does not occur because of something a mother does or does not do, it’s a combination of physical and emotional factors. After childbirth, the levels of hormones in a woman’s body quickly drop; which may lead to chemical changes in her brain (Postpartum Depression). Unbalanced hormones may trigger mood swings.
The article “Postpartum Depression” written by Sara Thurgood, Dr. Daniel M. Avery MD, and Dr. Lloyd Williamson, is engrossing and informatively written. Postpartum depression (PPD) is becoming an increasingly common issue among women after childbirth. PPD remains the most common perinatal psychiatric disorder, women are at greatest risk during the first year after giving birth. “Postpartum Depression” discusses what PPD is, how to treat it, and how a mother’s PPD affect her child’s development. This is a summary of what the authors of “Postpartum Depression” include in their article.
This proposal will outline the plan for research of postpartum depression in new mothers, its complications, current treatments, and new treatments. Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that occurs in women within the first 12 months after giving birth. In the past many women confused “baby blues” which consists of mood swings, frequent crying spells, irritability, anger, loss of sleep, and loss of appetite with postpartum depression. The major difference between the two is the duration of time and severity of symptoms. Baby blues last for at least two weeks after birth while postpartum lasts for several weeks with much severe symptoms. More women are being diagnosed with postpartum each year than any other major disease. The only treatment
When a woman gives birth to a child, it can be one of the most joyous and exciting moments in her life, yet it can also be difficult and stressful. There are a range of emotional, behavioral, and physical changes that occur shortly after a woman gives birth. These changes are common; however, many women who experience these emotions may have postpartum depression, with symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Many women require medical treatment. Although all causes of postpartum depression are unknown, there are many factors that can put a woman at risk. This essay provides an overview of postpartum depression, the impact it has on the individual client, the newborn, and the family, the physical and mental assessment
Postpartum depression is one of the most common complications of childbearing with an estimated prevalence of 19.2% in the first three months after delivery (1). Depressive episodes (major and mild) may be experienced by approximately half of women during the first postpartum year (1). Characterized by depressed mood, loss of pleasure or interest in daily activities, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, irritability, sleep and eating disturbances (2), its etiology is multi-faceted and complex (3;4).
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects at least 10-20% of new mothers. However, the true incidence may be much higher due to the fact that screening is not considered to be a standard practice, leaving PPD undetected and untreated in many women (Schaar & Hall, 2014). Postpartum depression not only negatively affects the mother; it also has a negative impact on the infant. For this reason, it is important for the health care providers caring for pregnant and postpartum mothers to screen them for risk factors associated with PPD, as well as educate them on ways to lessen their chances of getting PPD. It is also important for the health care providers to screen for PPD with a standardized tool like the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and to take action in treating it when it is suspected or diagnosed.
My area of specialization is maternal postpartum depression and its effect on child development. It 's a well-documented fact that postpartum depression affects not only the patient but other family members including the children.
Postpartum depression, which is the most prevalent of all maternal depressive disorders, is said to be the hidden epidemic of the 21st century. (1) Despite its high prevalence rate of 10-15% and increased incidence, postpartum depression often goes undetected, and thus untreated. (2) Nearly 50% of postpartum depression cases are untreated. As a result, these cases are put at a high risk of being exposed to the severe and progressive nature of their depressive disorder. (3) In other words, the health conditions of untreated postpartum depression cases worsen and progress to one of their utmost stages, and they are: postpartum obsessive compulsive disorder, postpartum panic disorder, postpartum post traumatic stress, and postpartum psychosis.
As mental health in America is finally being addressed and more research is seen, it is important to look at the potential causes or correlations that lead to common diagnoses for patients. According to Brummelte and Galea (2010), “depression affects approximately 1 in 5 people, with the incidence being 2-3x higher in women than in men.” Postpartum depression (PPD), a subset of this debilitating disease, has an estimated prevalence rate of 13-19% with another estimated 50% that are undiagnosed (O’hara and McCabe, 2013). As a whole, it has the same symptoms as major depressive disorder but diagnosis occurs within 0-4 weeks of giving birth (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Part of this lack of diagnosis is due to a multitude of healthcare
The birthing process generally leaves women with overwhelming joy and happiness. However, some women do experience a period of postpartum blues lasting for a few days or at most a couple of weeks but goes away with the adjustment of having a baby (Postpartum Depression, 2013). A condition called Postpartum Depression Disorder (PPD) leaves a dark gray cloud over 10-20% of woman after birth that is recognized in individuals 3 weeks to a year after the delivery of their baby (Bobo & Yawn, 2014). PPD leaves new mothers feeling lonely, anxious, and hopeless (Bobo at el, 2014). Postpartum Depression is a cross cutting disorder that can affect any woman after the delivery of a baby regardless of race, socioeconomic status, age, or education level (Postpartum Depression, 2013). Although this disorder affects more than 10% of women the article Concise Review for Physicians and Other Clinicians: Postpartum Depression reports that less than half of women with PPD are actually diagnosed with this condition (Bobo at el, 2014). It is important that postpartum women and their support systems receive education on what PPD consist of and ways to recognize the signs and symptoms of PPD so that a diagnosis is not overlooked. Early diagnosis is important because early recognition and treatment of the disorder yields for better results when treating individuals with PPD. In this paper I will deliver information about PPD based on recent literature,
The Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 20 people suffer from depression (2014). Although widely recognized and somewhat easy to diagnose, depression is an ignored and almost hidden, disease. In women, the statistics are especially grim for those who are pregnant or were recently pregnant. A great number of women suffer from postpartum depression; an illness which is often overlooked, misdiagnosed and untreated. Postpartum depression (PPD) has been defined as an emotional disorder that occurs in an estimated 10-15% of all women after childbirth (Liberto, 2010). Postpartum depression not only impacts the mother, but can cause long-term psychological challenges for the baby and create emotional turmoil for all family members.
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major event occurring in eight to fifteen percent of the woman population after delivering their child (Glavin, Smith, Sørum & Ellefsen, 2010). The symptoms and causes of PPD are similar to depression symptoms in other periods of life (Glavin et al., 2010). These symptoms may include feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, loss of interest in daily activities, sleep changes, anger or irritability, loss of energy, self-loathing, reckless behavior and concentration problems. These symptoms may lead to other factors that are detrimental to the child bearing and rearing family.
Depression, in general, affects more than 340 million people around the world and is reported to be the highest cause of disability in high-income countries (Demissie). 15% to 85% of mothers can experience postpartum “blues” with postpartum depression rates between 11.7% and 20.4% in the United States alone (Ersek). This depression can occur at anytime from post-delivery up to one year (Ersek).
Postpartum depression is a mood disorder in females that is known to be present within the 4 to 6 weeks after childbirth (Battle et al). This condition is the most common complication after childbirth (Mosses-Kolko et al.,2009).Studies have shown predictors which lead to postpartum depression such as maternal childhood maltreatment and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)in pregnancy (Seng 2013).A variety of factors exist among certain subgroups of women that may lead to postpartum depression. Postpartum depression affects approximately “one out of eight of the more than four million women who give birth in the United States every year”(Kruse et al. 2013a). The estimation of PPD in the US, UK, and Australia is from 7% to 20 % (Fitelson
The birth of a baby can generate powerful emotions, from excitement and joy to fear and anxiety. But it can also result in something unexpected, depression. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development. Postpartum depression is sometimes mistaken for baby blues, but the signs and symptoms are more intense and last longer, eventually interfering with a mother’s ability to care for the baby and handle other daily tasks. Symptoms usually develop within the first few weeks after giving birth, but may begin later and up to six months after birth. Postpartum depression isn 't a character flaw or a weakness, it 's simply a complication of giving birth. More than half of all mothers experience a period of “baby blues” in the first few weeks after delivery, when they feel significant sadness, exhaustion, fear, and mood instability. More often than not, this experience resolves on its own, especially in the presence of good social supports. Nevertheless, there are times when the “baby blues” don’t go away in just a few weeks and it sometimes progresses into an episode of major depression, with more severe and more persistent symptoms. As many as 1 of every 8 mothers are reported to develop an episode of major depression in the month immediately following delivery, though the Diagnostic and