Effects Of Steroid Hormones And Neuropeptides On Social Emotional Behavior

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A Review of the Effects of Steroid Hormones and Neuropeptides on Social-Emotional Behavior Bos, Peter A., Panksepp, Jaak, Bluthé, Rose-Marie, & van Honk, Jack (2011). Acute effects of steroid hormones and neuropeptides on human social–emotional behavior: A review of single administration studies. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 33 (2012) 17-35. 1. Introduction/Background Information The discovery of hormones and their function has been relatively recent. The term was first coined by Professor Earnest Starling in 1905. He derived the word from the Greek meaning “to arouse or excite.” However, the idea of the role hormones could be traced back as far as ancient Greece. Though Hippocrates’ theory on humors has been refuted, the concept of “bodily fluids,” or in this case, the amount of hormones circulating in the blood directly affecting temperament and emotions are related. Scientists continue to research the relevance of hormones, as well as neuropeptides on human behavior (J.R. Tata). Amazingly, throughout evolutionary history, both neuropeptides and steroid hormones were able to preserve their molecular structure, and their effect on cross-species sexuality. An estimated 450 million years ago, the neurotransmitter oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVT) were present in the earliest phyla, and their varied functions are similar in both animals and humans. Much like OT and AVP, the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E) play a significant role in

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