1)Effects of turbiridity due to land use changes-
• Turbidity measures the amount of light scattered from a sample and more suspended particles causes more scattering results in high turbidity.
• Turbidity measurements are often used as indicator of water quality based on clarity and total suspended solid particles. Turbidity doesn’t include the dissolved solids which reduces the scattering.
• In agricultural lands the receiving water is contaminated by nonpoint pollution due to different agricultural activities like crop production, cattle operations, crop pattern and rangelands.
• High rates of surface runoff and erosion of land covered by annual crops have high levels of turbidity in receiving water specially in spring when vegetation cover is minimal.
• Wetlands used in removal of bacterial contamination in rivers , act as biofilter which increases the turbidity.
• Turbidity is negatively related with the forested areas and positively with the annual crops and urban land use.
• Annual crops have more turbidity than the perennial crops.so the when annual crops are converted into the forested areas perennial crops & pastures cause 16.4% of turbidity.
• It is studied that stabilization of urban land through reforestation practices increases in water quality due to the high turbidity. Protection of water resources through land use policy is essential.
2)forest soils have high rate of infiltration-
• Infiltration is known as the movement of water in soil profile occure in