Effects of Listening To Music Essay

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The first article, The rewards of music listening: Response and physiological connectivity of the mesolimbic system, discussed the neurological and neurochemical responses to listening to pleasant and unpleasant music. The experiment was composed of thirteen right-handed individuals, six males and seven females, between the ages of 19 and 23, none of which has any specialized musical training. Each participant was played 20-25 second clips of classical music and scrambled classical music. To scramble the musical clips Levitin and Menon created segments of 250-350 milliseconds and then rearranged them randomly. The result was a 20-25 second clip of noise that retained the pitches, timbres, and loudness of the original, while dismantling …show more content…
Positive affect was shown to influence autonomic and somatic responses manipulated by the hypothalamus, as well as dopamine release by the ventral tegmental region due to the release of opioids by the nucleus accumbens.
The second article was a synthesis of many experiments and research papers. The Neuroscience of Natural Rewards: Relevance to Addictive Drugs, by Ann E. Kelley and Kent C. Berridge discussed the similarities and mechanisms of natural rewards in the brain and their relevance to drug addiction. The body has a natural reward system built in, which is designed to encourage behaviors necessary to our survival. According to this theory, the brain releases dopamine, G-proteins, protein kinases, and many other compounds when one does something necessary to survival such as eating, drinking, or procreating. Interestingly, these compounds are also released when addictive drugs are taken. The reward process involves the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and other forebrain regions, collectively referred to as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. These regions are in charge of not just reward, but negative motivation as well. Research has shown that dopamine is not only responsible for the pleasure of addictive drugs, but also for the pain experienced during withdrawal. This is because dopamine has a different effect
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