Effects of Methadone Treatment on Heroin Dependency

2779 Words Nov 19th, 2012 12 Pages

The Effects of Methadone Treatment on Opiate and Heroin Dependency

Since the early times, opiates, heroin, and other drugs have been used in providing analgesia as well as substitutes to reach a place of euphoria. Originally, as Yurgelum-Todd et al (2009) has noted, derived from the opium poppy, heroin has been used as an alternative to morphine in dealing with addiction (Yurgelum-Todd, p. 175, 2009). Unfortunately, over the years it has consistently become prevalent that heroin has more negative aspects than anything; heroin is highly addictive, resulting in consequences such as overdoses, infections, violence and crime, deficits in memory, learning, and
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This was to specifically exclude individuals seeking drug abuse treatment, those that have chronic diseases, and those that are taking medication that may contradict results in order to help minimize risk to participants (Greenwald, p. 54, 2009). In all, Greenwald was able to put together a research study of one hundred twenty-six participants. Each participant underwent a medical and drug use history check; signed a written consent form; produced blood and urine samples; and performed routine laboratory physical examinations (Greenwald, p. 54, 2009). Out of the one hundred twenty-six participants, Greenwald reported that a grand total of eighty-two individuals were excluded from the study: thirty for medical problems, twenty-one for substance abuse or dependence, twelve for psychiatric problems, sixteen for not returning to complete the screening procedures, and three for other reasons. This resulted in forty-four subjects for the study, two of which became employed leaving the number at a final forty-two (Greenwald, p. 54, 2009). The study was carried across fifteen days in specifically repeated measures (Greenwald, p. 54, 2009). The two groups were established based on the level and power of heroin cravings. Greenwald tested their levels of cravings after the first three days of methadone administration as well as through a computerized, forty-five item scale. Thirty minutes before the methadone was administered,