Progesterone Essay

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Progesterone, a type of female sex hormone which belong to a steroid hormone class known as progestogen, has a major role in the development of oral contraception. Progesterone is produced in ovaries, adrenal gland and in placenta when women get pregnant. In the menstrual cycle, ovary unceasingly alternates between two phases: the follicular phase, which is characterized by the presence of maturing follicles and the luteal phase, which is governed by the presence of corpus luteum. Ovulation occurs in between these phases. Corpus luteum, which is formed through luteinization of ruptured follicle after ovulation, secretes large amounts of progesterone and small amount of estrogen.
Progesterone acts at progesterone receptors (PR) which
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Levonorgestrel inhibits secretion of GnRH, LH and FSH through negative feedback to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Levonorgestrel inhibits secretion of LH and FSH from anterior pituitary and these indirectly causes a delay in follicle development. Decreased level of LH also lead to delay or inhibition of LH surge, which then inhibits ovulation. According to Danielsson (2010), when LNG was administrated at two to three days before LH surge, the LH peak was inhibited or delayed. However, when LNG was provided one day before or on the day of LH surge, it failed to inhibit ovulation.
Levonorgestrel has a high level of efficacy to prevent pregnancy as an emergency contraceptive (EC). It is also relatively safe to use and well-tolerated. It is relatively cheaper than other oral contraceptive. In addition, for women over 16 years old, certain brand of Levonorgestrel can also be obtained without a prescription from pharmacies. However, Levonorgestrel only effective if taken within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse. It is also only effective before LH level start to rise in follicular phase. Headache, abdominal pain, and etc. are very common in women who taken Levonorgestrel.
Ulipristal or Ulipristal acetate (UPA), the first selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM), possess both antagonistic and partial agonist properties. It is commonly used as an oral emergency contraceptive.
Ulipristal affects follicle maturation and
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