Egyptian Revolution of 1919

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The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a countrywide non-violent revolution against the British occupation of Egypt. It was carried out by Egyptians from different walks of life in the wake of the British-ordered exile of revolutionary leader Saad Zaghlul and other members of the Wafd Party in 1919. The event led to Egyptian independence in 1922 and the implementation of a new constitution in 1923

The event is considered to be one of the earliest successful implementations of non-violent civil disobedience in the world and has been followed immediately by similar actions in the Indian independence movement led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

The 1919 revolution in Egypt consisted of months of civil disobedience against the British
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This was the result of Egypt’s increasing involvement in the war, despite Britain 's promise to shoulder the entire burden of the war. During the war, the British poured masses of foreign troops into Egypt, conscripted over one and a half million Egyptians into the Labour Corps, and requisitioned buildings, crops, and animals for the use of the army.[2] In addition, because of allied promises during the war (such as President Wilson 's Fourteen Points), Egyptian political classes prepared for self government. By war’s end the Egyptian people demanded their independence.[3]
Shortly after the First World War armistice of November 11 was concluded in Europe, a delegation of Egyptian nationalist activists led by Saad Zaghlul made a request to High Commissioner Reginald Wingate to end the British Protectorate in Egypt and Sudan, and gain Egyptian representation at the next peace conference in Paris. The delegation also included 'Ali Sha 'rawi Pasha, Abd al-Aziz Fahmi Bay, Muhammad 'Ali Bay, 'Abd al-Latif al-Makabati Bay, Muhammad Mahmud Pasha, Sinut Hanna Bay, Hamd Pasha al-Basil, Gurg Khayyat Bay, Mahmud Abu al-Nasr Bay, Mustafa al-Nahhas Bay and Dr. Hafiz 'Afifi Bay.[4] Meanwhile, a mass movement for the full independence of Egypt and Sudan was being organized at a grassroots level, using the tactics of civil disobedience. By then, Zaghlul and the Wafd Party enjoyed massive support among the Egyptian people.[5] Wafdist
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