For example, The appalachian Mountains were formed by a massive continental collision over 300 million years ago. According to page 88 in my science notebook, the rocks in the Chattooga River is evidence of the continental collision. Mountains are formed when two continental plates collide, and form the mountains. The Appalachian mountains, were formed during Pangea. The North American Plate and the African Plate collided. When this happened the Appalachian Mountains were formed. These mountains then grew bigger, but as soon as it started growing, it also eroded. Erosion and
II: Plate tectonics shows the features and movement of the Earth. The theory of plate tectonics says that the outer shell of the earth is broken down into pieces often called plates (Korenaga). These plates hover over the mantle creating movement (Marshak). With plate tectonics you can determine the earth’s features without actually seeing it.
But in fact these also proved plate tectonic theory because they showed temporal change ie they were once at plate boundaries but have moved away because of plate movement. All the evidence, sea floor spreading, hot spots and subduction proved the plates moved this knowledge then developed into the understanding that something must be providing energy or a current so that the plates could move; This theory then came about as ‘convection currents’. Convection currents is a liquid in the mantle that moves and the currents come from the subduction zones.
The first, would be Land features. Alfred Wegener saw how the coal fields in North America and Europe lined up, he also realized that mountain ranges in North America and Africa lined up. The second, evidence he used were the fossils. There were three types of fossils he found the first was the glossopteris a fern like plant found in Africa, South America, Australia, India, and Antarctica. The second and third were the Mesosaurus and the Lystrosaurus fossils, they were freshwater reptile fossils on continents separated by oceans. The third evidence Alfred Wegener used was, the climate zones. Alfred Wegener looked at the past of the climates and he found scratches in rocks from glaciers in South Africa. Those were the three main evidences Alfred Wegener used to prove Continental Drift
Overall the plate tectonics theory does seem valid as there is lots of evidence to prove it right. For example fossils on either side of the ocean, climates being the same in different continents and hot spots. But there are some stronger pieces of evidence like the ring of
Plate tectonics is the theory that Earth's outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle, the rocky inner layer above the core. Compared to the mantle, the plates are a hard, tough, and rigid shell. California is made up of different types of plates that are unique in the way that they form and move. (LiveScience)
Refer to the images above. Discuss in detail the two pieces of additional evidence that supported Wegener’s theory, now known as the theory of plate tectonics.
One line of evidence used to support continental drift is the discovery of similar fossils on different continents. Both fossil plants and animals found in India, South Africa, Australia, Antarctica, and South America are very similar. This supports the idea that the continents were once one because it suggests that the animals roamed the land, were fossilized where they were when they died, and then we discovered the fossils after the supercontinent had separated.
Firstly, plate tectonics was not formed exclusively from induction which differentiates “real science … from unscientific superstitions by its reliance on observations, generalization, and repeated confirmation”, however it was crucial in forming the basis of this theory (400). Continental Drift was the precursor to plate tectonics in a sense as it used sensory observations including the examination of how continents appeared to fit together like puzzle pieces and how many plant and animal fossils as well as rock formations were shared among continents that currently have no physical connection. These observations led Alfred Wegner, the man who introduced continental drift, to make a general statement that all of the continents must have been together at one time and have progressively shifted because of some force (Ammon). Although this evidence was circumstantial and did not undeniably prove his theory, more proof was repeatedly found with additional fossils and rock formations that were discovered to be shared between continents. Conversely, flat earth theory uses a single experiment known as the Bedford Level Experiment which incorrectly stated the earth was flat (Cox). This experiment does use sensory observations and a generalization regarding said observations which is part of induction, but leaves out the necessary component of repetition that completes it. In
There is a bunch of evidence supporting the continental drift, like all the continents look as if they could fit together, just like a puzzle. Similar fossils were found on the edge of separated continents, meaning the animals were all together and roaming on an unusual land mass. The northern continents and Antarctica of the present day were found near the equator, proving the theory of plate tectonics.
Geochemists are continuously concerned in defining elemental abundances in minerals and rocks as the time goes by. They examine the distribution of chemical elements and the movement of these elements into soil and water systems which they find interesting in having a closer look on the evolution of the Earth and how it affects the plate tectonics. The movement of the plates caused the supply of nutrients to the oceans changed through the time. To further know what might have helped trigger the rise in atmospheric oxygen, Greber lead a group of researchers to look at Titanium isotopes in shales which lead to a conclusion that changes in crustal composition are possibilities that in an extent can affect the prevalent change in ocean chemistry.
Having such dense vegetation, provides habitats to many living animals and microorganisms, it could cause overgrowth of plant and other species that could cause endemic diseases. Places like the desert, low biodiversity, has limited food sources to human and animal all together it could cause a low rate of rebirth for both animals and plants. Functional diversity has effected natural selection in great ways throughout history. One specifically being the process of tectonic plates which caused Pangea, continent consisting of all present-day continents, to split apart and turn into present-day continents that we now know and inhabit. The movement of these continents, made them experience climate change and specify which species would be well
The tectonic plate model project was a fun, yet informative project that showed students how to effectively move things from one place to another and also how Pangaea moved to how it is today. By using two big foam boards, big blue sheet, artificial grass sheet, magnets, tape, copy paper, and pencils, we were able to create an accurate representation of how Pangaea moved from over 4 billion years to now. How we created this project was by using magnets. Magnets are very versatile and we attached them accordingly onto the continents and poster board to create a moving project of Pangaea. By gluing magnets onto each continent and the blue sheet, we were able to create moving continents that show Pangaea’s movement.
In junior high school, I have learned the Continental Drift Theory, and my geography teacher told me there was a new theory based on the Continental Theory, i.e. Plate Tectonics. I accessed to the Internet to find the information about Plate Tectonics.
The theory of plate tectonics has been explored throughout history because of similarities in coastal boundaries and other evidence found such as fossil records, geometric fit, mountain episodes, the paleoclimate observed, information about the ocean floor, ancient magnetism, distribution of volcanoes and earthquakes and heat flow from the earths core. There were early theories from Wegner’s continental drift which lacked an explanation for the mechanism that drove the continents apart, to Wilson’s more complete theory of the cyclical opening and closing of the ocean basins due to movement of the earth’s plates. The theory explains how today 's continents were once a large supercontinent that slowly drifted to their present positions and will again form one giant continent via collision.