Elements of Weather and Climate

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Elements of weather and climate[edit] There are several elements that make up the weather and climate of a place. The major of these elements are five: temperature, pressure, wind, humidity and rain. Analysis of these elements can provide the basis for forecasting weather. These same elements make also the basis of climatology study, of course, within a different time scale rather than it does in meteorology. Modifying factors of weather and climate[edit] The more important are also five: latitude, altitude, distance to the ocean and/ or sea, orientation of mountain ranges toward prevailing winds and ocean currents. See also[edit] Climate Climatology Extreme weather Meteorology Outline of meteorology Weather References[edit] ^ Arthur…show more content…
Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants, though together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. Total annual evapotranspiration amounts to approximately 505,000 km3 (121,000 cu mi) of water, 434,000 km3 (104,000 cu mi) of which evaporates from the oceans.[2] Sublimation The state change directly from solid water (snow or ice) to water vapor.[6] Deposition This refers to changing of water vapor directly to ice. Advection The movement of water — in solid, liquid, or vapor states — through the atmosphere. Without advection, water that evaporated over the oceans could not precipitate over land.[7] Condensation The transformation of water vapor to liquid water droplets in the air, creating clouds and fog.[8] Transpiration The release of water vapor from plants and soil into the air. Water vapor is a gas that cannot be seen. Percolation Water flows horizontally through the soil and rocks under the influence of gravity Residence times[edit] Average reservoir residence times[9] Reservoir Average residence time Antarctica 20,000 years Oceans 3,200 years Glaciers 20 to 100 years Seasonal snow cover 2 to 6 months Soil moisture 1 to 2 months Groundwater: shallow 100 to 200 years Groundwater: deep 10,000 years Lakes (see lake retention time) 50 to 100 years Rivers 2 to 6
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