Elements of Weather and Climate

2452 Words Aug 12th, 2013 10 Pages
Elements of weather and climate[edit]

There are several elements that make up the weather and climate of a place. The major of these elements are five: temperature, pressure, wind, humidity and rain. Analysis of these elements can provide the basis for forecasting weather.
These same elements make also the basis of climatology study, of course, within a different time scale rather than it does in meteorology.
Modifying factors of weather and climate[edit]

The more important are also five: latitude, altitude, distance to the ocean and/ or sea, orientation of mountain ranges toward prevailing winds and ocean currents.

See also[edit]

Climate
Climatology
Extreme weather
Meteorology
Outline of meteorology
Weather
References[edit]

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Evaporation often implicitly includes transpiration from plants, though together they are specifically referred to as evapotranspiration. Total annual evapotranspiration amounts to approximately 505,000 km3 (121,000 cu mi) of water, 434,000 km3 (104,000 cu mi) of which evaporates from the oceans.[2]
Sublimation
The state change directly from solid water (snow or ice) to water vapor.[6]
Deposition
This refers to changing of water vapor directly to ice.
Advection
The movement of water — in solid, liquid, or vapor states — through the atmosphere. Without advection, water that evaporated over the oceans could not precipitate over land.[7]
Condensation
The transformation of water vapor to liquid water droplets in the air, creating clouds and fog.[8]
Transpiration
The release of water vapor from plants and soil into the air. Water vapor is a gas that cannot be seen.
Percolation
Water flows horizontally through the soil and rocks under the influence of gravity
Residence times[edit]

Average reservoir residence times[9]
Reservoir Average residence time
Antarctica 20,000 years
Oceans 3,200 years
Glaciers 20 to 100 years
Seasonal snow cover 2 to 6 months
Soil moisture 1 to 2 months
Groundwater: shallow 100 to 200 years
Groundwater: deep 10,000 years
Lakes (see lake retention time) 50 to 100 years
Rivers 2 to 6
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