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Embryonic Heart Structure

Decent Essays
Heart is the first organ that develops and functions in mammalian embryo (Moorman et al., 2003). In mouse, it was reported to starting differentiation at E7.25 embryo. Twenty four hours later, a primitive heart tube was formed from the precardiac mesoderm, and start beating at E8 in mouse compared to about 3 weeks of gestation in human (Brand, 2003; Sissman, 1970). In mice, Roche et al., (2013) reported that the heart is considered a unique structure as it is derived from a four distinct pools of progenitors: the cardiac crescent, the second heart field (SHF), the proepicardial organ, and the cardiac neural crest. These progenitors were tracked into the different cell types namely, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and the conduction system described in adult heart (Roche, Czubryt, & Wigle, 2013).…show more content…
Those chambers are separated by inter atrial and inter-ventricular septum (IVS) respectively (Kaufman & Bard, 1999; Stadtfeld, Ye, & Graf, 2007). The normal formation of the septa of the embryonic heart depends on the formation of mesenchymal cells in the cardiac cushions. The latter is formed via activating endothelial cells in the atrioventricular (AV) and conus outflow tract (OT) regions to form cushion mesenchyme (Moore, Mjaatvedt, & Gearhart, 1998). Defects in normal development of cardiac cushions or septa results in the well known atrial, atrioventricular canal, conotruncal, and ventricular septal defects (VSD) which all represent major causes of congenital heart disease (LEE, HSIEH, CHEN, & SHIUE, 2009). Ventricular septal defects are one of the most common congenital heart lesions (Stadtfeld et al.,
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