McGregor (1960) described two views on human motivation: Theory X and Y. Theory X, the more conventional one, holds the view that people are in themselves not intrinsically motivated to work and even attempt to avoid it, that people have no ambition, are resistant to change, are not particularly intelligent and that people only work for money and security. Management’s objective is to direct employees efforts, motivating them, controlling them and modifying their behavior to ensure that they behave in line with the organization’s needs and goals.
There are five elements of total rewards, each of which includes programs, practices, elements and dimensions that collectively define an organization’s strategy to attract, motivate and retain employees. These elements are:
'Motivation is a process that influences the direction, persistence and vigour of goal-directed behaviour. Psychology 's diverse theoretical perspectives views motivation through different lenses. (Passer, Smith, Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, Vliek., 2009, p.475). The psychological motivational theory that I
A recognition program that could measure the quality of the items produced, as well as a second recognition category for the quantity of items produced may give employees a reward that would have more intrinsic value then a bonus that has little monetary value due to tax withholdings. Rewards given could be something as simple as an employee
Expectancy Theory: People exert a high level of effort when (1) he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal, (2) that a good appraisal will lead to rewards, and (3)
The term ‘hedonism’, from the Greek ‘hēdonē’ for pleasure, refers to several related theories about what is good for us, how we should perform, and what motivates us to behave in the ways that we do. Pleasure and pain as the only significant elements of whatever phenomena are designed to describe and identify all hedonistic theories. However, the only thing of ultimate importance is what makes distinctive hedonism, and the interesting philosophically are the claim of pleasure and pain. Hedonistic theories of value, the good life for the one living, and especially of well-being, are tended to focus by a philosophical hedonist. (Weijers, 2012:15)
The rewards offered can be extrinsic such as wages, incentives and bonuses, or intrinsic such as job satisfaction, an internal feeling of worth and a sense of well being on the job.
The Porter-Lawler Expectancy Theory of Work Motivation is the complete opposite of what Maslow, Hertzberg and Alderfer propose in terms of satisfaction leading to improved performance, instead this content theory proposes that motivation does not lead to performance and all three aspects of motivation, satisfaction and performance are separate aspects. Figure 2 depicts the Porter-Lawler Motivation Model and highlights that performance is
Hope is a powerful thing that pushes people to achieve what they want.When people get hope they become more likely to try harder to achieve their goals. Gö Rees notes:”It seems that performance can be enhanced in short term by reminding people that they have the motivation and the means to pursue a goal.”University College Utrecht.
these specific vectors. Moreover, aspects of setting goals, planning, and staying determined are all factors related to hope theory and these practices were reflective throughout my personal development as a college student.
In more simple words, the theory suggests that hedonism explains how humans are wired to desire pleasure and that life is about enjoying those pleasures without any regards about the outcome. Hedonism seems to be only focused on good and personal benefits and enjoyment and that anything that does not provide that happiness is not of any intrinsic value and pain should be avoided in order to live happily. Talking about hedonism, several examples come to mind. First, I think about people that enjoy gambling. These people go to casinos and keep on spending money until there is the pleasure of “winning” but that can be argued. They are putting money in the slots and just hoping for a win, but at the same time addicted gamblers enjoy pushing buttons and pulling levers- which is the pleasure they get out of it- but by the time the gambler starts losing the money, the event starts to get