Employment Benefits And Rewards Like Outings And An Employee 's Work Effort As Inputs

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This can be illustrated by the following equation: Adam 's Categorized employment benefits and rewards like outings and an employee 's work effort as inputs.
Input Examples:
• The number of hours worked by the employee.
• The responsibilities of the employee at work an employee of work duties
• The commitment demonstrated by the work employed
• The loyalty of a worker
• Flexibility of the employee such as undertaking short-term tasks
• The support the employee has provided to the organization, colleagues and line managers.
Output Examples:
• Salary
• Bonus
• Prizes
• Recognition of the employee’s contribution
• Positive work appraisals
• Work promotions
• Pension
• Employer flexibility
• Annual leave
Adam 's stated that if an
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If any of the variables approaches at level zero, the likelihood that the so motivated also affects zero-level performance.
• However, Vroom’s expectancy theory has its critics. The important ones are:
• Critics such as Porter and Lawler lebeled as a theory of cognitive hedonism that proposes cognitively individual chooses the course of action that produces the highest degree of pleasure or the least degree of pain.
• The assumption that people are rational and calculus makes idealistic theory.
• The content of expectations does not describe individual and situational differences.
• But Valencia or the value people to different rewards varies. For example, an employee prefers salary to benefits, while another person prefers just the opposite. The Valencia of the same reward varies from one situation to another.
• in spite of all these criticisms, the greatest hope in my theory is that it explains why the significant segment of the workforce exerts low levels of effort in carrying out the job responsibilities.
3.2.2 Porter and Lawler’s Expectancy Theory:
• In fact, Porter and Lawler Vroom 's theory is an improvement over the theory of hope. They postulate that motivation is not equal to satisfaction or performance. The model

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