Early on the misty winter morning of Dec. 16, 1944, more than 200,000 German troops and nearly 1,000 tanks launched Adolf Hitler's last bid to reverse the flow out/decline/get worse fortunes that had begun when allied troops landed in France on D-Day. Trying to drive to the coast of the English Channel and split the allied armies as they had done in May 1940, the Germans struck in the Ardennes Forest, a 75-mile stretch of the front seen as dense woods and few roads, held by four inexperienced and fight-worn American divisions placed/assigned therefor rest and seasoning.
Leading into the Fall of 1914, tactics on both sides of the line involved the rapid mobilization, maneuver and envelopment of the opposing side.10 Pre-1914 doctrine took little into account the effects of emerging new technology and their impact on both defensive and offensive operations. This disconnect between doctrine and technology contributed to the failure of early offensive operations in the Fall of 1914 and resulted in staggering casualties.11 Both sides developed doctrine that took into effect the unique terrain and technology that had been developed prior and during World War I. However by the end of the war, a combination of flexibility, decentralized control, and counterattack at every echelon made the German defensive system the most effective.12 This “elastic defense” had three unique characteristics; dedicated counter-attack force at all levels, decentralized command and control, fluid defensive belts and integrated artillery support at the Division level. Under this new doctrine, Corps headquarters had the role sustaining subordinate units, but not directing their actions during battle.13 This defense-in-depth and the lessons learned during the Verdun battles of 1918 were so successful that British forces adopted many of the German tactics with a special emphasis on their counterattack capability.10 Utilizing the new doctrine, by August 1918, Germany had made substantial gains, however had
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II. It was launched, in the dense forest of Ardennes Wallonia in eastern part of Belgium, northeast France, and Luxembourg. This battle was one of the largest fought by the United States Army, on the Western Front in Europe, during World War II. This fierce battle, was between the German Nazi’s, the American Army, Canadian Army, and the British Army, was one of Hitler’s last attempt to split the Allies driving them towards Germany and destroy their ability to supply themselves. Were the Germans able to stop the Americans and the British from getting their supplies? Was the weather a factor and if so, who did it assist in the battle? Was the American Army able to counter attack in a timely manner and stop the German Nazi’s invasion?
Bodies flailing, ripped apart by machine guns. German Panzers destroying everything in their path. A blood soaked forest; the Ardennes. The Battle of the Bulge began on December 16, 1944. It was a hard fought allied victory that pitted American, British, Australian, and South African forces against the battle hardened Panzer and SS German divisions. In the heat of the battle, the American 101st division was surrounded by German forces at Bastogne. When asked to surrender, General Anthony McAuliffe only replied with one word; “Nuts!”. The 106th division was almost annihilated. This was a gallant allied victory, showing the force of the American soldiers. However, it came with great cost. Influenced by the beginning of the war and how the war turned against the Nazi’s, the Battle of the Bulge was a bloody battle, in which German defeat lead to their surrender soon after, proving to be an extremely significant event in WWII.
Both the Battle of Stalingrad and the Russian campaign are commonly considered ‘turning points’ when it comes to the Allied victory in the European War. However, before proceeding further in this report it is important to acknowledge the fact that the Battle of Stalingrad and the Russian campaign alone did not lead to the Allied victory. But, nonetheless, they were both incredibly significant contributors.
In “The Face of Battle,” John Keegan analyzed the experiences of the individuals involved in the battles of the Somme and Waterloo; he thoroughly examined the advancements of industrialization in warfare and battle strategy between 1815 and 1916. The industrialization of modern warfare during the battle of the Somme, while progressive, was very much still in its experimental stages. While the inventions during this time period were later evolved into much more useful products, it seems as though the organized warfare in Waterloo was much more effective; the soldier’s mediocre training for the Somme was obvious in the chaotic events that occurred. While each battle was disastrous in their own ways, industrialization certainly improved means of warfare and the experience that the soldiers had.
When Allied commanders during World War II needed engineers to clear the beaches of Normandy, when the 4th Infantry Division needed airfields repaired, roads maintained, and bridges built in Vietnam, and when the 24th Infantry Division needed someone to identify and mark the main routes into Iraq during the Gulf War there was one unit that stood above all others. That unit was the 299th Combat Engineer Battalion. The 299th was activated on March 1st, 1943 at Camp White, Oregon. Since then the unit has been put on reserve and active status, deactivated and reactivated, and assigned many different higher headquarters in order to meet the Army’s mission. The 299th Combat Engineer Battalion had always been quick to act, brave under fire, and completed crucial missions in order to ensure the mobility of the main force. The 299th is a very distinctive and proud unit.
This paper explores the contribution of 82nd Airborne Division Combat Engineers in World War II. During an Allied Force mission dubbed, “Operation Market Garden”, the city of Nijmegan was integral in the overall success or failure in defeating the German Forces. On the outskirts of Nijmegan, the Waal River separated Allied Forces from the German Panzer Divisions. This paper will annotate the experiences, contributions, and actions of combat engineers assigned to Charlie Company 307th Engineer Battalion. This paper will also provide you excerpts from an actual After Actions Review (AAR) of the operation to cross the Waal River, to include quotes from the actual engineers that were involved with the river crossing. This paper will
During the Battle of the Bulge, Adolf Hitler was caught off guard by the American forces. He was basically “sleeping” on the job. For the American forces, the general was Dwight D. Eisenhower. He is the same Dwight D. Eisenhower that led the D-Day Invasion, and a future president. George S. Patton moved his army to the “Third Army of Bastogne”, to move up. After this move, this “led to the neutralization of the German counteroffensive despite heavy casualties.” They had to change the game plan. During the Battle of the Bulge, three German armies led one of the deadliest and bloodiest attacks of the war in the west.it should be a day to be remembered. After this, the Germans drove deeper into the Ardennes allied forces.” While this fighting
The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers, in World War I is going to be the topic that will be covered. How the Engineers had a invaluable impact on World War I. The areas and job fields that the engineers had diversed in. Facts will be covered on the reasoning why the United States had entered the Great War of Wars. The twenty-eighth President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson and what was going through his mind as the Commander and Chief. United States Engineers in World War ,I was very important, because it changed the battlefield for that war and future wars to come.Building of a Corp from low numbers to thousands.When the nation was in need of numbers many patriots answered the call. The goals of this paper is to give a full viewpoint on the labor and many accomplishments that the Engineers had succeeded in.
Nazi’s had occupied France at the time and had taken control. France was part of the allied forces and was under attack by the Nazi’s. As part of the Allied Powers America, Canada, and Great Britain came to the rescue. Dwight Eisenhower was the leader behind this invasion. In December 1943, Eisenhower was put in charge of Operation Overlord – the long waited for attack on mainland Europe. Such an attack would require detailed and meticulous planning which is why Eisenhower was picked to lead this plan by the combined chief of staffs. In excerpts from General Eisenhower’s document the Order of The Day which he gave to the soldiers on D-Day he states In company with our brave Allies and brothers in arms on other fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and security for ourselves in a free world. / But this is the year 1944!/The tide has turned! The free men of the world are marching together to victory! I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full victory!(Eisenhower 1944). General Eisenhower explains that the allies should come together, and they will bring forth destruction upon the Germans. He also states that in the document they will force the Nazi’s out of Europe and France will be freed. Eisenhower
Other than causing the liberation of France and the establishment of a new battlefront, the invasion also relieved the Soviet Union’s pressure. Before the Invasion, Germany had over two million troops fighting against the Red Army in the Eastern Front, and many of Soviet’s cities were captured. The Russians fought desperately to protect their cities. However, after the invasion, with the launch of a new major battlefront in the West, Hitler had to transport many of his forces to the West in order to defend his own country. Without as many troops to fight against, the Soviet army was able to push through Czechoslovakia, Poland and eventually penetrate into Germany; the Soviet Union’s progress greatly sped up the endof the war. (Naval History and Heritage- D-Day, the Normandy Invasion, 6 - 25 June 1944)
In the late 1944, during the wake of the Allied forces’ successful D-Day Invasion of Normandy, it seemed as if the Second World War was over. On December sixteenth, with the onset of winter, the German army launched a counteroffensive that was intended to cut through the Allied forces in a manner that would turn the tide of the war in Hitler’s favor. The battle that ensued is known historically as the Battle of the Bulge. The courage and fortitude of the American Soldier was tested against
During World War II there were many battles that took place. One particular known battle was the “Battle of the Bulge” also known as the battle of Ardennes, from December 16th, 1944 to January 16th, 1945. It was the Last major German offense on the Western Front during WWII, and it was a futile attempt to push the Allies back from German home territory. This name was given by Winston Churchill, a description of the resistance he mistakenly supposed was being offered to the Germans’ breakthrough in that are before the Anglo-French collapse. The word Bulge denotes to the wedge that the Germans drove into Allied lines. This informative research of the Battle of the Bulge, focuses on the Field Artillery branch, its immense efforts in the battle,
The Germans defeated the Polish and almost all of Western Europe. Although the British had no help when it came to Hitler and his army, the remains of Europe had been overturned already. The Battle of the Bulge also called Battle of the Ardennes as well, which began Dec. 16, 1944 and ended Jan. 16, 1945. This was the last major German offensive on the Western Front during World War II. It was an unsuccessful attempt to push the Allies back from German home territory . Winston Churchill made a promise that he would fight as long as it would take to overcome Hitler. The name Battle of the Bulge was appropriated from Winston Churchill he referred to “the bulge” as the wedge that the Germans drove into the Allied lines.