The purpose of my paper is to show how the Scotch-Irish culture came to be in the United States. There were several things that led the Scotch-Irish to make the perilous journey across the Atlantic Ocean to America including famine and high rents. It is estimated that 40-55,000 Scotch Irish arrived in America from 1763 to 1775. (Everyculture) The Scotch-Irish is one of the strongest cultures in the United States and their influence has been generous.
Beginning with the conversion of the Irish Celts around the fifth century, Christianity began to spread across the British Isles. Around 630, an envoy of monks was sent from a monastery on the Scottish Isle of Iona to a small Northumbrian island (only about 4 square kilometers at high tide) situated in the North Sea of the Atlantic. An Irish monk, Saint Aidan, established a monastery on that small spit of land that would come to be called Lindisfarne, or simply Holy Island. Together with the monastery at Iona, Lindisfarne became an integral part of artistic creation in early medieval northern Europe (Kleiner 288), and from it’s workshop would emerge a new style of artwork that wove elements of pre-existing artistic styles of the British Isles, such as those of the Celts and the Anglo-Saxons, with unfamiliar Christian imagery imported from Near East to create the Hiberno-Saxon, or Insular style. This style would be employed by the monks at Lindisfarne to create one of the most splendid texts of early medieval Brittania, the eponymous Lindisfarne Gospels. A wondrous illuminated manuscript worthy of its acclaim, these Gospels are a quintessential example of Hiberno-Saxon style, and its pages and iconography we can glean a look at the historical context of the book, as well as the
Ireland has changed in many ways since the beginning of time. Many different people have invaded Ireland and changed so many things. One of the most important continuous invaders of Ireland were the vikings. These vikings were only from Norway, known as ostmen, they were notorious for raiding and looting. But, things were different with Ireland they managed to settle and establish permanent bases there.
The Fenians sought to outflank the British Coast Guards stationed in Canada with guerilla warfare. Their plan was to cause a bloody rebellion until news that the treatment of the Irish has improved or until the patience of England is quite worn out. The lyrics “..we’re going to fight for Ireland…. And we’ll go and capture, for we’ve got nothing else to do” exemplifies the Fenians rentlesslesnes and the pride they took in trying to liberate Ireland.
During the early 1700's in Irish history; Catholics were not permitted to vote, marry a Protestant, join the armed forces, bare arms, or have an educated. They made up 70% of the population, but only owned 5% of the land. England had colonized Ireland and because they didn't like Catholics, they made the conditions really harsh for them. Although the English owned most of the land, they predominantly lived in England, so they would rent it out to another protestant who would then divide it between multiple Irish families. The rent would be raised with any land improvements so the tenants would often avoid making any. This then leads to poor food production rates and an overall poorer country. In the essay “ The Modest
According to a United States Census Bureau report (2010) the number of people speaking a primary language other than English at home more than doubled between 1980 and 2007. During those years, the percentage of the population who considered English as their second language increased by 140 percent while those who considered English as their primary language only grew thirty-four percent in the same time period (US Census Bureau, 2010).
In 1800 Ireland became a part of Britain after they failed to rebel against them. Ireland had already been a British colony, but because of them becoming a part of Britain their old government was taken down and they were forced to join the British parliament. Ireland was allowed to have 100 members to represent them in parliament. Catholics were not allowed although that was the main religious denomination in Ireland. Britain had persecuted catholics since the early 16th century when Henry VIII made the act of supremacy that made it so the pope was no longer was the head of the church in Britain http://www.britannica.com/topic/Act-of-Supremacy-England-1534. The British government implemented laws to destroy catholicism in Britain. One law
Post-colonial theory has still prevailed in Irish literary and cultural studies for some time. New perspectives are coming up in the spheres of history and economics. Lately, there has been a great need for the analysis of the entire history to come up with effective ways for persons to clearly understand the history of Ireland. The nineteenth century Ireland is still in a dilemma due to the controversies that explain the value of colonial and post-colonial Irish history and culture. There is always need to discuss colonial perspectives so as to better understand various aspects about this country. This essay will focus on the analysis of Terrence McDonough’s book and will analyze how the book was effective in giving an account of Ireland’s history.
Before we begin, it is very important to understand the difference between an official language and a standard language. An official languages is one that is adopted by the government for document and business purposes, this would be most native people’s second language; one that the government sees as advantageous and necessary. Most of the time a standard language could also be referred to as the native language; a common language that the high majority of citizens use to converse outside of the government. Currently there is a major push to be bilingual, to the point where countries are adding or changing the official language(s). Countries that were presented and are using English because of government ordained laws are Kenya, Zambia, The Bahamas, Jamaica, New Zealand, Ireland; an extremely minimalistic representation the total amount of countries with English as an official language. Almost every other country, especially China and India, have their students studying English. It is advantageous for further education, business, and
The first humanoids appeared in Ireland during the 7th millennium BC. They are believed to have arrived from France and Scandinavia over the open ocean. They settled areas on the North Eastern coast of Ireland. During the Mesolithic period inhabitants depended mostly on fishing and hunting and gathering. Curraghs, light weight boats, were used to navigate inland water and coastal fishing. The only remnants of this culture are the imprints left in pottery, there were no major contributions to the island itself.
Throughout my research into the subject of the Irish in England's industrial north during the early nineteenth century, one fact became quite clear; contemporary writers' treatment of the Irish was both minimal and negative. I consulted many sources, Friedrich Engels, Leon Faucher, James Kay-Shuttleworth to name but a few and the reoccurring theme as pertaining to the Irish in all these works was mainly consistent; the Irish were a lazy, vulgar people prone to drinking and brawling.
Europeans considered the Indians that they met to be savages because of their experience with Ireland. Sir Humphrey Gilbert who was once a governor of an Irish district later established the first British colony in the new world. In Ireland they saw that the people were isolated, had their own language, and lived in ways the English considered crude and wasteful. Gilbert took what he saw from Ireland and arrived to the new world with an already preconceived view of the Indians because they were similar to the Irish in those ways.
Hyde’s speech argues that the Irish had by that point indiscriminately adopted all that was English with little thought as to its value, that the Irish had “[ceased] to be Irish without becoming English.”2 He criticizes those Irish who claim to hate British dominance, yet speak only English, anglicize their Irish names, and remain ignorant of Gaelic literature. His central view is that the Gaelic language is the most important aspect of an Irish identity distinct to that of the British, and that only a return to Ireland’s native language can halt the process of Anglicization. However, he is careful not to make the claim that nothing English is of value, but emphasizes the necessity of not neglecting that which is essentially Irish.
``After the Norman Conquest, the British Isles were, with the exception of the Norman kingdom in Sicily, the most significantly multilingual and multicultural territory in western Europe`` (Crane 1999:35). Explain the background to this situation, and relate the changing uses of the different languages to the social and historical context.
“In the world were over seven thousand languages have exisisted, one language had become dominate. This dominant language is English.” “In the majority of countries throughout the world speak English as their second or first language, no longer just America or England.” English has taken many forms, American English, the Queen’s English, Australian, Canadian English, and several others. Even American English has taken several types of English, Jersey English, East Coast English, West Coast English, Southern English, slang English, and Ebonics. All of these languages have major variants between them, but are all of them are still understood aboard. Without English the world couldn’t operate,