Enhancing the Tourist Destination: An analysis of the Official Tourism Website of Indonesia

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B. Literature Review

1. Tourism Discourse
Tourism is a movement which comprises the straight interaction between cultures and all that this conception consist of namely culture and heritage, folklore, customs, gastronomy, dancing, rules, etc. The relationship between language and tourism has been paid attention by some scholars such as MacCannell (1976) and Urry (1990) who argue the tourism development depends on language use and how to construct and define the tourist experience and destination images. As Boyer and Viallon (1994) discovered that it is not so many destinations which is integrally touristic but rather the language use creates them be touristic. This concept was then developed by Graham Dann (1996) who was one of the first
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Tourism has gradually converted dependent on image (Tasci & Gartner, 2007). Contrasting typical products, prospective tourists are obtaining an intangible product, and experience. Therefore, a study from Hudson and Ritchie (2006) examined the role of promotional media in portraying destinations and concluded that tourism promotion has significant impact in persuading potential tourist. However, there are only few research concerned with how the language and images enhance the tourist destination (Salim, Ibrahim & Hanita, 2102). Debatably, both language and image aspects have important functions in valuing the destination such as, to persuade and to attract potential tourists. Consequently, both language and image in tourism promotional media play an important role to lure and persuade potential tourists to make a decision (Thurlow and Jaworski, 2010; Mocini, 2005; Morgan & Arnette, 1989). Moreover,
Furthermore, Choi, Xinvan, & Alastair (2007) carried out a study on tourism promotional media and state that promotional media provide the significant knowledge of tourist destinations and product. Most prominently, the studies showed that promotional media such as advertisement, booklet, websites, brochures, magazines and tourist guide or other promotions related media are broadly recognized as an essential and powerful part of traveller decision making. For instance, the role of visual images in the tourism media has been shown as an important aspect in

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