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Entrepreneurship Challenges in 21st. Century | | What is Entrepreneurship? The definition of entrepreneurship has been debated among scholars, educators, researchers, and policy makers since the concept was first established in the early 1700’s. The term “entrepreneurship” comes from the French verb “entreprendre” and the German word “unternehmen”, both means to “undertake”. Bygrave and Hofer in1891 defined the entrepreneurial process as ‘involving all the functions, activities, and actions associated with perceiving of opportunities and creation of organizations to pursue them’. Joseph Schumpeter introduced the modern definition of ‘entrepreneurship’ in 1934. According to Schumpeter, “the carrying out of new combinations we call…show more content…
Although many current theories on entrepreneurship agree that there is an inherent component of risk, the risk-bearer theory alone cannot explain why some individuals become entrepreneurs while others do not. Thus, in order to build a development model of entrepreneurship it is necessary to look at some of the other characteristics that help explain why some people are entrepreneurs; risk may be a factor, but it is not the only one. Modern school of thought claims that the role of the entrepreneur is that of an innovator; however, the definition of innovation is still widely debatable. Kirzner suggests that the process of innovation is actually of spontaneous “undeliberate learning”. Thus, the necessary characteristics of the entrepreneur is alertness, and no intrinsic skills-other than that of recognizing opportunities-are necessary. Other school of economists claims that entrepreneurs have special skills that enable them to participate in the process of innovation. Leibenstein claims that the dominant, necessary characteristics of entrepreneurs is that they are gap-fillers i.e. they have the ability to perceive where market fails and to develop new goods or processes that he market demands but which are not currently being supplied. Thus, entrepreneurs have the special ability to connect different markets and make up for market failures and deficiencies. Though the idea that entrepreneurs are innovators is largely acceptable, it

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