Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Motor Development This paper explores the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on motor development. With this topic, came many questions. They are: Is every child effected the same amount, or does it depends on how much the mother drank and how much the fetus was exposed to?, Is there anything the mother can do to reverse the effects of exposure, or perhaps lessen the damage on the child?, Is there a safe amount of alcohol that can be consumed without harm?, And lastly, do the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure ever go away? Coles et al. (2015) and Lucas et al. (2016) suggest answers and evidence to these questions. This paper explains what happens when a fetus is exposed to alcohol, and how it
Although throughout the United States activist and educational campaigns have flooded U.S citizens with education on the detrimental effects of maternal alcohol consumption, women are still continuing to consume alcohol while pregnant. Fifty three percent of non-pregnant woman drink alcohol, and despite health warnings, twelve percent of pregnant mothers in the United States still consume alcohol (Pruett &Waterman & Caughey, 2013, p. 62). Fetal alcohol exposure is also believed to be widely underreported in the United States (Pruett et al., 2013, p. 66). Current research concludes that there is no safe level of alcohol consumption, nor a safe time during gestation for alcohol consumption to take place (National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome [NOFAS], 2014). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term used for the various conditions that maternal alcohol consumption causes. Although each case of FASD can present differently, cognitive disabilities, facial deformities, and growth retention are a few of the hallmark adverse effects that alcohol has when it enters fetal circulation (Paley & O’Connor, 2011, p. 64). The United States is impacted economically by these debilitating conditions as well, as it costs our nation $746 million dollars annually to care for these children (Bhuvaneswar, Chang, Epstein & Stern, 2007, p. 3). Nurses in America, and across the globe have a key role in helping to eliminate, and minimize adverse effects of these conditions
Keelana Char English 155 Ms. Mendiola 19 September 2012 Drug Addicted Babies The use of illicit drugs and abuse of alcohol exact a steep price from our society. Substance abuse is a factor in many serious ills such as crime. More upsetting, however, is the affects that it has on children born affected from their dependent mothers. The National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 60 percent of women of childbearing age consume alcoholic beverages despite the fact that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is implicated in a wide range of birth defects and developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, physical abnormalities, and visual and auditory impairments. (Nevitt, 1996)
As stated earlier, alcohol has its greatest effect on the developing embryo during the first trimester of pregnancy with its teratogenic effect causing mental retardation as well as characteristic craniofacial abnormalities that are characteristic of the disease. It has also been demonstrated with experimental animal models that there is a clear "dose-response" effect between the amount of alcohol consumed by the mother and the risk that is associated with developing FAS symptoms (Walpole, p. 875). It has been proposed by Walpole and associates that there are various degrees to which the fetus An be effected. Walpole uses the term "fetal alcohol syndrome" to refer to serious effects due to heavy maternal drinking and "fetal alcohol effect" to refer to those effects thought to occur with lower maternal alcohol intake (Walpole, p. 875). Regardless of the degree to which
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Some of birth defects and development disabilities are caused by parental exposure to alcohol. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a group of terms that can provide the concept of the effects that may occur in a newborn baby whose mother was drinking alcohol during her pregnancy such as mental, physical, behavioral, and cognitive effects. FASD was first described in 1973 in the United State of America by Jones and Smith, it was defined at that time as a ‘tragic disorder’. For every 1,000 live births in certain areas of the United States there is about 0.2 to 1.5 infants with FASD. Although FASD is incurable disorder, understanding the nature of the disease, avoiding triggers, and getting an
The first developmental stage of the life span is prenatal development. A major environmental factor in this stage is the mother. “Women who adopt healthy eating patterns during pregnancy not only contribute to fetal well-being, but also reduce the likelihood of developing chronic illnesses and enhance overall health” (Fowles, E., & Fowles, S., 2008, p. 149). Furthermore, “heavy drinking during pregnancy is associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders involving outcomes as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), placenta abruption, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, birth defects, and neurodevelopmental disorders” (Meyer-Leu, Y., Lemola, S.,
In the article “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- A Birth Defect Recognized Worldwide,” by Kerstin Stromland used strong clinical evidence supported by various studies to bring attention to the fact that alcohol consumed during pregnancy severely damages the neurological and physiological development of the child. Perhaps the most noticeable difference between children with
Prenatal exposure to heavy alcohol increases the probability of the child to have developmental problems. One of the main problems of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is related to attention deficit. Children that were exposed to high doses of alcohol during pregnancy have lowest visual and auditory focus and take a longer time to change between visual and auditory attention. However, alcohol did not seem to have a significant impact on their
In the 1950s to 1960s, there was another rise in fetal birth defects called the “thalidomide scare”. Thalidomide was used to relieve morning sickness experienced during pregnancy. This scare caused scientists to realize that certain types of drugs given during pregnancy, affected the development of the fetus. It wasn’t until 1973, when two pediatricians, David Smith and Kenneth Jones, whom specialized in dysmorphology, the study of abnormalities present at birth, published their article on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. In their study, they examined eight children to determine what caused their developmental impediments. These children were characterized with growth deficiencies, microcephaly, and impaired cognitive development. All their mothers were alcoholics, which resulted in Smith and Jones to believe alcohol was causing defects in the offspring .
Scope of the Problem During pregnancy, the development of an unborn fetus is of extreme priority and must not be disrupted in any manner; otherwise complications arise. It is unfortunate that almost 50% of United States pregnancies are unplanned and unrecognized for weeks. It is during those unrecognized weeks that mothers continue to consume alcohol resulting in an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (Ingersoll, 2013). Mothers who consume any amount of alcohol pose a serious threat to their unborn child and even to themselves with risks including pre-term delivery, low birth weight and numerous conditions within in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. According to an
Research has shown that a key element of working with prenatally-exposed children is providing education to parents and caregivers (Paley & O’Connor, 2009). Behavioral difficulties are often secondary to the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other substances. Parents and caregivers often experience high levels of stress that is directly related to the unpredictable and challenging behaviors associated with prenatal exposure (Olson, Oti, Gelo, & Beck, 2009, Paley, O'Connor, Kogan, & Findlay, 2005). Parents, caregivers, teachers, and other adults often have negative perceptions of prenatally-affected children, often because the nature of the child or adolescent’s deficits are not well understood or identified (Paley, O'connor, Frankel,
In the study titled Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Ability, Academic Achievement, and School Functioning in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Follow- Up, there is a study conducted in order to show the correlation of academic problems to prenatal alcohol exposure, in which some of the children in the study had fetal alcohol
Drink during pregnancy is one of the major causes of birth defect. Use of alcohol is one of the major public health issues and much focus has been placed on educating women about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the deleterious effects it can have on a child development. It is estimated that nearly 20 percent of women drink during pregnancy which has a significant impact of children cognitive ability. Data show that drinking effects specific cognitive and behavioral pattern some of which include: verbal learning, visual-spatial learning, attention, reaction time and executive function. Despite the current evidence alcohol consumption continues to be a serious issues (Russell, Czarneck & Cowan, 1991).
Morgan Howard PSY 2023- Developmental Psychology Professor Hanselman-Scott 26 April 2015 The human lifespan is full of growth and development. Lifespan development is categorized into five major stages, which are the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. While physical changes are obvious, we also develop in less obvious ways, such as cognitively and
Introduction Choices and changes in lifestyle of women before and during the period of pregnancy, have a major impact on the health of both a woman and her upcoming child. Health professionals mostly advised women before and during pregnancy for modifications in lifestyle with positive way. A healthy lifestyle required