Environmental Factors Influencing Amylase Enzyme Activity

2686 Words Oct 4th, 2012 11 Pages
Abstract: Enzymes are specific-type proteins that act as a catalyst by lowering the activation energy of a reaction. Each enzyme binds closely to the substrate; this greatly increases the reaction rate of the bounded substrate. Amylase enzyme, just like any other enzyme, has an optimum PH and temperature range in which it is most active, and in which the substrate binds most easily. The purpose of this experiment was to determine (1) the reaction rate of an amylase enzyme in starch and (2) the environmental factors that can affect the enzymatic activity. The hypothesis, in relation to the enzymatic activity by variables such as the substrate concentrations, temperature, PH and chemical interactions on the rate of reaction, stated …show more content…
The optimal temperature permits the utmost number of molecular collisions and the fastest alteration of the reactants to product molecules. Most human enzymes have an optimal temperature of about 35-40°C (close to body temperature 37°C).

In addition to an optimal temperature, every enzyme also has optimal PH values at which it is the most active. The optimal PH value for most enzymes fall in the range of PH 6-8 (close to neutral PH 7); however some digestive enzymes in the human stomach work best at very acidic PH of 2.

In this lab experiment the action of the enzyme Amylase was observed on starch (the substrate). Amylase changed the starch into a simpler form, the sugar maltose, which is soluble in water. Maltose then breaks down the glucose chains of starch in the pancreas and intestines. Amylase is present in human saliva, and begins to act on the starch in the food while still in the mouth. Exposure to heat or extreme PH (acid or base) will denature proteins. Enzymes, including amylase, are proteins; if denatured enzymes can no longer act as a catalyst for the reaction. In the presence of potassium iodide, starch turns a dark purple color; however maltose does not react with I2KI. The rate of fading of starch allows a quantitative measurement of reaction rate.

Enzymes have an ideal range of values for any of the variables, or optimal conditions, in this experiment. When these optimal conditions are
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