Environmental Management And Urban Planning Practices

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Since the foundation of the principles of sustainable development, the interpretation and level of integration of sustainable principles have varied greatly on a global scale. As a result of the Bruntland Report’s (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) founding definition of sustainable development, there has been a drive towards the goal of a balance between the integration and policy frameworks of economic growth, social justice and environmental concern (Getzner, 1999; Connelly, 2007). However, the plethora of differing views on sustainability, and a global society fixated on economic growth, has created multiple approaches (Williams & Millington, 2004). The approaches vary in their effectiveness to address principles…show more content…
The principle allows natural capital and the capacity of ecosystems to be valued in the functions and services they provide to human well-being (Pelenc & Ballet, 2015). Substitutability is the weak sustainability approach to ecological economics and assumes that natural capital and manufactured (man-made) capital possess no differences in the provided well-being benefits, so therefor, they are substitutable (Pelenc & Ballet, 2015). The problem with this approach is the view that natural capital is purely a resource, and degradation of natural resources is justifiable, when technological development will provide a substitute and resolve any ecological problems that arise (Williams & Millington, 2004). However, by actually valuing the environment, this approach strives to manage natural capital more effectively and sustainably by developing renewable resources in addition to more efficient uses of existing natural resources (Williams & Millington, 2004). Though as a whole, the substitutionary approach is less concerned with sustaining the health of the Earth’s ecological aspects and more sustaining development and the economy (Williams & Millington, 2004).
In contrast to
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