Lactase Lab

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Section 1. Introduction
“Enzymes are proteins that have catalytic functions” [1], “that speed up or slow down reactions”[2], “indispensable to maintenance and activity of life”[1]. They are each very specific, and will only work when a particular substrate fits in their active site. An active site is “a region on the surface of an enzyme where the substrate binds, and where the reaction occurs”[2]. “Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar in milk. It is produced by the cells lining of the small intestine. Most people are born producing it, but often make less of it as they age, which causes lactose intolerance the symptoms for this include nausea, bloating, and diarrhea to name a few. This enzyme is produced
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We did this to test which test tube would contain the highest concentration of glucose. What we wanted to know was if the lactase would affect the function of the enzyme. Our hypothesis is the lactase functions within a narrow pH and that will change in pH would affect the function of the enzyme. We predict that if we change the environmental factors it will have an effect the function of the enzyme if the pH is outside the range in its optimum activity. Our hypothesis was then proven because the reaction only occurred in a neutral and acidic state of pH, not basic. Which means the enzymes prime ability to function is a neutral, and acidic pH range. We then tested the last set of test tubes containing milk and lactase, we did this to find which ones would present the most glucose concentration results, when placed in different temperatures, 4°C, boiling and room temperature. What we wanted to know was how far temperature could affect lactase to perform its enzymatic activity. We hypothesized that if the lactase is placed in a high or low temperature outside its active range, the temperatures would have a negative impact on the functions of the enzyme. If the temperature has an affect on lactose then we would see some temperatures in which lactase will be function able. We came to a conclusion that enzymes work at a temperature that is closest to body temperature (25°C); boiling water (100°C) denatures the enzyme, while the enzyme is not able to function properly if
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