Epidemiology Hepatitis B

737 Words Mar 10th, 2015 3 Pages
Hepatitis B affects 1 in 3 people worldwide (Hepatitis B Foundation [HBF], 2014). A vaccine has been available for over 30 years, yet it is the ninth leading cause of death worldwide (HBF, 2014). The epidemiology of hepatitis B, the role of the community health nurse along with the knowledge about what is being done to combat and reduce the impact of the virus gives a comprehensive look at hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus, and belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses (World Health Organization [WHO], 2014). The virus interferes with liver function and liver damage is caused from the inflammation from the body’s immune response. Jaundice is the classic symptom of liver disease. For correct
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The goal is to decrease transmission and stop or decrease damage to the liver (WHO, 2014). A vaccine was made available in 1982 that is 95% effective in protection against hepatitis B (WHO, 2014).
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013), cases of acute and chronic hepatitis B are underreported in the United States (U.S.). Acute cases have been declining related to vaccination, but chronic hepatitis B cases may be as much as 1.4 million of the U.S. population. In 2011 the CDC (2013) reported 2,700 cases of acute hepatitis B, which after adjustment for underreporting is 18,800 cases. In 2010 there were 1,792 deaths from hepatitis B, which is 0.5 per 100,00 population.

Figure 1 – Epidemiological Triangle

According to the WHO (2014) the highest prevalence for hepatitis B is in East Asia, and the Sub-Saharan African region. Infants born to mothers infected with hepatitis B and early childhood transmission account for a third of the chronic infections in endemic areas (WHO, 2014). Drug users who share needles, unprotected sexual contact with a partner positive for HBV, multiple sexual partners, male with male sexual contact, health care providers, or living with someone positive for HBV increases the risk of hepatitis B infection. Each of these categories has increased exposure to blood or body fluids infected with hepatitis B.
The highest rates of

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