Epidemiology Hepatitis B

1639 Words Jan 1st, 2014 7 Pages
Epidemiology of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is a disease that affects many people worldwide and can cause serious and potentially fatal complications. This paper will provide an overview of this disease, including demographic information, while discussing contributing determinants of health, the implications of the epidemiological triangle as it relates to the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), the role of the community health nurse, as well as identify a national organization that addresses the disease and how it contributes to reducing the impact on society.
Overview
Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus that multiplies in the liver, causing inflammation that can involve other organs of the body such as the kidneys and
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Interferon Alpha has been associated with unwanted side effects whereas fewer side effects have been reported with Lamivudine, however, patients can become resistant to Lamivudine with continued treatment (Lavanchy, 2004). A vaccine is available and recommended for all infants, healthcare workers and those at high risk who have not been previously vaccinated. Receiving Hepatitis B immune globulin within 24 hours of exposure to the virus may provide protection against the development of infection in those not vaccinated (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2011).
Demographics
HBV is the tenth leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 500,000 to 1.2 million deaths each year. There are 2 billion people infected and 350 million living with the chronic condition. The prevalence varies by region with the highest incidence being Southeast Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa (Lavanchy, 2004). The United States is considered a low prevalence area where there are roughly 0.9 cases per 100,000 people, two-thirds of whom are foreign born. The mortality rate of those in the U.S is reported as 0.5 deaths per 100,000 people. Men are typically infected at a higher rate than women worldwide with the highest prevalence being within the 25-45 year old range for both genders. Over the past ten years the incidence in the U.S. has decreased by 67%. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC],

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