Epidemiology : Symptoms And Treatment Of Patients With Severe Head Injuries

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Epidemiology
According to Emedicine, acute subdural hematomas have been reported to occur in 5-25% of patients with severe head injuries, depending on the study. Subdural hematomas are more common in men than in women, with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 3:1. Two age groups are most at risk of developing chronic subdural hematoma: the young and the elderly. Advanced age and chronic alcoholism are common antecedents, presumably because of brain atrophy, which causes stretching of bridging veins and, thus, predisposes to tearing. The atrophic brain also permits the asymptomatic accumulation of the nascent collection. The mechanism of hematoma growth in infants and toddlers may relate to the striking neovascular response of its outer
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Causes
The most common way for a subdural hemorrhage to occur is through a head injury. For instance a slip and fall, motor vehicle collision, or an assault. Though, the head injury can occur weeks prior to, this can still cause a subdural hemorrhage to form. The sudden blow to the head tears the blood vessels that run along the surface of the brain. Also, people with a bleeding disorder and people who take blood thinners are more likely to develop a subdural hemorrhage. A relatively minor head injury can cause subdural hemorrhage in people with a bleeding tendency. In the elderly, the veins often are already stretched due to brain shrinkage and are more easily injured. Other cause that can lead to a subdural hemorrhage are the following:
• Brain injury
• Sturge-Weber Syndrome
• Meknes Disease
• Concussion
• Anticoagulant medication (blood thinners, including aspirin)
• Long-term abuse of alcohol
• Recurrent falls
• Shaken baby syndrome

Symptoms and Signs
The symptoms and signs of subdural hemorrhage differs in adults and infants. In adults the subdural hemorrhage symptoms are the following:
• Confused speech
• Difficulty with balancing or walking
• Headache
• Lethargy or confusion
• Loss of consciousness
• Nausea and vomiting
• Numbness
• Seizures
• Slurred speech
• Visual disturbance and so forth.

The symptoms for subdural hemorrhage in infants are the following:
• Bulging fontanelles
• Feeding difficulties
• Focal seizures
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