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Epidemiology Paper

Grand Canyon University
Concepts in Community and Public Health
NRS 427V Colleen Darrow RN

June 28, 2014

Epidemiology Paper
“World wide, two billion people have been infected with hepatitis B Virus” (Shepard & Simard, 2006, p. 112) Hepatitis B virus cause liver tissue infections which is life threatening potentially. And both acute and chronic hepatitis B has a profound impact on global health. “More than 240 million people have chronic liver infections, and more than 780,000 people die every year due to the acute or chronic consequences of hepatitis B.”("WHO Media Center," 2014) The HBV is transmitted from an infected carrier to the others via contact
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112) HBV is present in body fluids including blood, saliva, semen and vaginal fluids and can be to a susceptible individual through entering the bloodstream. Persons with chronic HBV infection are the major reservoir for transmission. Since HBV remains stable infectious on environmental surfaces for up to 7 days, contaminated surfaces and other objects can facilitate the virus transmission indirectly during the period. Many effective HBV prevention methods had been implemented before the introduction of hepatitis B vaccines. However, none of the methods had been proven to be effectively eliminated HBV. Vaccination is still the most effective HBV prevention methods. Adult immunization occurs over six months after the administration of three injections. Newborn and infants younger than 6 weeks of age can receive single antigen hepatitis B vaccine. “The safety of hepatitis B vaccine has been demonstrated in a large, prospective clinical trial and post licensure safety analyses.”(Shepard & Simard, 2006, p. 117) More than 95% of infants, children and young adult are able to maintain protective antibody levels after complete the vaccine series. And at least 20 years to life long protection should be expected in the most cases. In addition, blood safety can be maintained by screening of all donated blood components to prevent transmission of HBV.
“Community health nurse have a critical role in caring for patients with chronic hepatitis B, as they
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