Epilepsy Is A Central Nervous System Disorder ( Cns )

1112 Words Apr 9th, 2015 5 Pages
Introduction
Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder(CNS) causing recurrent seizures and can only be defined when there is at least one epileptic seizure.[1][2] John Hughlings Jackson, a notable British neurologist proposed that epilepsy is "an occasional, an excessive and a disorderly discharge of nervous tissue". About 65 million people(1% of the human population) in the world have epilepsy and the cases account for 80% in developing countries. [3][4] In this essay, the normal physiology of nerve transmission in cerebral cortex and pathophysiology of epilepsy will be discussed. The mechanism of action of valproate is also studied and how it leads to the treatment of epilepsy.

Normal Physiology of Nerve Tranmission in Cerebral Cortex
The body system that is affected by epilepsy is CNS which is consisted of the brain and the spinal cord.[5] (Figure 1) Figure 1 The major divsions of CNS[5]

The brain has a part called the cerebral cortex(gray matter) which is made up of 3 to 6 layers of neurons.[7] A neuron has three parts namely axon, dendrites and cell body.[6] Neurons are classified as principal(projection) neurons and interneurons. Principal neurons transmit information to other neurons in the brain and form excitatory synapses. Interneurons in the CNS transmit impulses locally and form inhibitory synapse.[7] Two common types of pathways for these neurons include recurrent feedback pathways and feed-forward pathways.[9](Figure 2) `…
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