Eradication, Extinction, And Control

790 WordsAug 13, 20154 Pages
1. Define eradication, extinction, elimination, and control. a) Eradication as permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of a disease or an infection and with further intervention no longer needed, once interruption of transmission has been certified worldwide,. b) Extinction of the disease means the specific infectious agent no longer exists in nature or even in the laboratory. c) Elimination: reduction to zero of the occurrence of a disease or an infection in a defined geographical area, continued measures to prevent re-emergence and re-establishment of transmission are required. d) Control is associated to the reduction in the incidence (the number of new cases per population at risk in a given time period), prevalence (the proportion of the population found to have a condition) of an infectious disease to an acceptable level within a specified area. 2. Describe the characteristics of smallpox that made it an appropriate candidate for eradication. The following indicators were considered to be of primary importance for the eradication of smallpox: a) an effective intervention is available to interrupt transmission of the agent; b) practical diagnostic tools with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to detect levels of infection and also possibility of transmission; c) smallpox was transmitted people to people through the air without an intervening vector, and no other possible reservoir in the environment; d) the disease was easy to diagnose because of
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