Erik Erikson

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Erikson’s Stages of Personal and Social Development. As people grow, they face a string of psychosocial crises that shape personality, according to Erik Erikson. Each crisis focuses on a particular aspect of personality and involves the person’s relationship with other people. STAGE I: TRUST VERSUS MISTRUST ( BIRTH TO 18 MONTHS) The goal of in-fancy is to develop a basic trust in the world. Erikson ( 1968, p. 96) defined basic trust as “ an essential trustfulness of others as well as a fundamental sense of one’s own trust-worthiness.” The mother, or maternal figure, is usually the first important person in the child’s world. She is the one who must satisfy the infant’s need for food and affection. If the mother is inconsistent or…show more content…
Rather, it is a reassembly or “ an alignment of the individual’s basic drives ( ego) with his or her endowment ( resolutions of the previous crises) and his or her opportunities ( needs, skills, goals, and demands of adolescence and approaching adulthood)” ( Erikson, 1980, p. 94). STAGE VI: INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION ( YOUNG ADULTHOOD) Once young people know who they are and where they are going, the stage is set for the sharing of their life with another. The young adult is now ready to form a new relationship of trust and intimacy with another individual, a “ partner in friendship, sex, competition, and cooperation.” This relationship should enhance the identity of both partners without stifling the growth of either. The young adult who does not seek out such intimacy or whose repeated tries fail may retreat into isolation. STAGE VII: GENERATIVITY VERSUS SELF- ABSORPTION ( MIDDLE ADULT-HOOD) Generativity is “ the interest in establishing and guiding the next generation” ( Erikson, 1980, p. 103). Typically, people attain generativity through raising their own children. However, the crisis of this stage can also be successfully resolved through other forms of productivity and creativity, such as teaching. During this stage, people should continue to grow; if they don’t, a sense of “ stagnation and interpersonal impoverishment” develops, leading to self- absorption or self- indulgence ( Erikson, 1980, p. 103). STAGE VIII: INTEGRITY VERSUS DESPAIR (
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