Error Types For Corrective Feedback

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Error types for corrective feedback. Research on the error types that need corrective feedback has reported mixed findings, indicating that while corrective feedback influenced the improvement of linguistic knowledge, its effects depended on the types of errors. Ferris (2006) categorized errors into five major groups (verb errors, noun errors, article errors, lexical errors, and sentence errors) and reported that students who received feedback only reduced the incidents of verb errors. Van Beuningen (2010) found that CF was most effective when provided on rule-governed errors (e.g., errors in verb tense and form, subject-verb agreement, article usage, plural and possessive noun endings, and sentence fragments). Van Beuningen et al. (2012) distinguished grammatical errors (morphological errors and syntactic errors) from nongrammatical errors (spelling and mechanical errors) and reported that direct feedback was more beneficial for grammatical errors and indirect feedback for nongrammatical errors. Bitchener and Ferris (2012) stated that teachers should provide feedback on errors (systematic incorrectness indicating gaps in students’ interlanguage structure) but not on mistakes (unsystematic incorrectness, such as memory failures) and suggested that teachers should respond to high-frequency and stigmatizing errors. Electronic feedback. Even though Bitchener and Knoch (2008, 2010), Ferris (2006), Lee (2008, 2013), Mohebbi (2013), Shintani, Ellis, and Suzuki (2014), and Van
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