# Errors, Uncertainties and Measurements Laboratory Report

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Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainties and Measurements
Laboratory Report

Abstract

The success of an experiment greatly depends on how the group is able to execute it and how precise and accurate their results are. In this matter, errors and uncertainties in measurements are of great factor. In this experiment, the group was able to classify the causes of such errors and which measuring device is more precise and accurate than the other. These were obtained by measuring the diameter of an iron sphere with several trials made by each member of the group using measuring devices such as the Foot Rule, the Vernier Caliper and the Micrometer Caliper. The group found out that in measuring, both the Vernier Caliper and the Micrometer Caliper are
The percentage uncertainties are then added and finally, the total percentage uncertainty is changed back into an absolute uncertainty.
3. When squaring a measurement, change the absolute uncertainty into a percentage uncertainty, then double it then change the total percentage uncertainty back into an absolute uncertainty (for cubing you would treble the percentage uncertainty).
4. When square rooting a measurement, change the absolute uncertainty into a percentage uncertainty, then halve it, then change back to an absolute uncertainty.
These ideas are followed in order to produce an accurate or precise answer. In order to compute for the error in the experiment the following formulas were used in this experiment: Given: n = 10

1. Mean Diameter:
(summation of the values of the 10 trials)/10

2. Deviation:
(Mean diameter)-(value of one trial)

3. Average Deviation (a.d.):
a.d. = Ʃd/n

4. Average Deviation of the Mean (A.D.):
A.D. = a.d./√n

5. Volume (V):
(4/3)(r3)

6. Weight:
*taken from the electronic gram balance

7. Density: Mass/Volume

8. Density error:
│E-A/A│ x 100
Where E is the experimental density and A is the accepted density

3. Methodology

Materials:
Vernier caliper

Micrometer caliper

Foot rule

Electronic gram balance

Sphere of known composition

Procedure:
First, the measuring devices were checked if they had error. The measurement was added or subtracted if the caliper had any